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U.S. History Study Notes Radical Reconstruction

1216 words - 5 pages

1.What is the significance of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments?-Congress starts drafting it very early in 1866 and it takes a couple of years to ratify it --> goes against Taney's decision and the Three-Fifths Clause doesn't apply anymore (every five slaves will be counted as three) especially shown in Section 2-the Joint Committee on Reconstruction proposed a Fourteenth Amendment-very controversial - guaranteed national citizenship to all males born in the United States, regardless of color-did not grant Blacks the right to vote, but it based representation in Congress on the voting population of the state. This means that southern states would have reduced representation if they did not allow blacks to vote2.Why did Congressional Reconstruction replace Presidential Reconstruction?-once Johnson announces that the southern states are restored through Presidential Reconstruction:-one of the big problems that emerges that Johnson has restored normal relations for those former Confederate states - concerned about maintaining control over their free black population, newly freed black men and women have the desire to assert their power (want to own their own land and self-sufficient - do not want to be in a dependent relationship)-the ex-slave owners do not want the free blacks to become independent-the South passed legislature - the Black Codes (white southerners establish new rules and regulations to control their new black population)-need them to work on the cotton fields --> want to create a new system of restricted behavior (since slavery is dead)-there are jails in the South where blacks will be accused of insignificant crimes or falsely accused (the state will have the local jail the black inmate population do labor for them)-lien --> allows you and your family to live on a certain, but the owner of the plantation will charge you a certain amount of rent (the bookkeeping is so fraudulent even at the end of the crop season - create a debt cycle)-gradually becomes known as sharecropping → becomes a new form of forced labor, forced servitude (can still live with your family-better than slavery)-Republicans pass Civil Rights Act (Fourteenth Amendment)-Johnson vetoes it, but Congress overrides it for the first time-creation of the Freedmen's Bureau → established to help blacks with the transition to freedom (helping them with getting work, getting an education, finding family members) - Johnson also tries to veto it-Johnson blamed congressional Republicans for the riots and even suggested that Radical Congressman Thaddeus Stevens should be hanged-goes around giving speeches condemning the Radical Republican Party-whole series of riots --> white community uncertain about racial etiquette - frantically trying to reclaim control-Memphis, Tennessee - conflict between federal black soldiers and white policemen, biracial relationships troubled whites → sparks three days of riot-New Orleans riot too, plus the Black...

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