1. Historical background
The country known as Uganda was once a British colony just like the majority of its neighbors in East Africa. It was initially intruded into by the Arab traders led by Speke and the British explorers led by Stanley in 1862 and 1875 respectively. They both paid homage to Mutesa who was the King (kabaka) of the Buganda. Uganda remained predominantly under the colony of the British until 1962 when they were granted internal self government by Britain (History World, 2011).
Uganda is a country that covers 7,108 sq mi in area and a host of 33.3 million people found in East Africa. It is bordered by Congo on the West, Kenya on the East, Tanzania and Rwanda on the south and Sudan on the North. It enjoys the equator since it crosses through it and has three major weather areas; the fertile plateau, swampy lowlands and the desert regions. The famous Lake Victoria is found to the southern part of Uganda (The World Factbook, 2011).
The topography of the population is such that the life expectancy is 52.9, the growth rate is pegged at 3.5%, the birth rate is 47.5/1000, the infant m ortality rate is 63.7/1000 and the density per sq mi is 392 people (Pearson Education, 2011).
According to Encyclopedia of the Nations (2011), the economy of the nations is dependent on agriculture with 80% of the population relying on agriculture for employment and in turn produces 90% o f the export of the country. Uganda also has some deposits of copper, cobalt and the recently discovered oil, however, Uganda just like most of the African countries remain to be among the world’s poorest nations.
The Ugandan population is majorly consisting of poor people who live on a dollar or less per day. They can barely afford basic health care which not provided for by the government. HIV is a widespread disease in Uganda with a prevalence rate of 6.5 among the age bracket of 15 to 49 years old according to UNICEF (2010). Malaria is another disease that is predominant as well as the water borne diseases.
Some of the most emerging and re-emerging agents of the waterborne diseases are; Cholera which is caused by the ingestion of water that is infected by Vibrio Cholerae. This is a painless form of diarrhea characterized by watery stool. Dysentery which is caused by Escherichia Coli. Typhoid that is caused by Salmonella typhi which is usually accompanied by fever is yet another disease. Gastroenteritis diseases caused by Giardia and Cryptosporodia and some species of hepatitis are also known to be caused by water (CDC, 2011). These disease causing agents find their way into the human body through infected water that people from the poorer communities in Uganda use and have no option of cleaner water.
Some of the measures that the government has encouraged to help curb the problem is boiling of water. This is the cheapest option since the government cannot afford offering iodine tablets and the water filters....