Uk Health Services Not Meeting The Needs To Identify Specific Health Measures For Gay And Bisexual Men

2085 words - 8 pages

Health according to the Constitution adopted by the International Health Conference held in New York in 1946 which led to the foundation of the World Health Organization (WHO) was defined as “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” (World Health Organization 2006, pp. 1-18) and it was observed a fundamental right of every human being to enjoy the highest attainable standard of health irrespective of race, religion, political belief, economic or social condition (WHO, 2006). However Yurkovich and Lattergrass (2008) urged the impossibility of the existence of a universal definition of health as cultural context within which an individual is raised inevitably affects the person’s perceptions of health and wellness and as Spector (2003) advocated without careful observation of community and culture healthcare providers and the recipients would be like two separate groups trying to communicate in different languages. In these contexts, social messages, language, customs, and rituals serve as a form of social communication, which constitute an integral part of culture and as a result, affect treatment outcomes (Green, 2010; Naidoo and Wills eds., 2008). Conrad (1999) and Lawton (2003) (cited in Swami et al. 2009) pointed lay people perceived health and illness as something integrated into daily life, fuelling a shift from utterly bio-medical frameworks towards more holistic understandings of health and ill-health, but illness and healing according to Green (2010) and Cartwright (2010) are elaborated and socially constructed concepts and individuals acquire characteristics like capacity to represent the external world, think and communicate, explain their place in the world, and maintain group identity through myths and rituals through their respective cultures and the multi-cultural character of modern society makes understanding individual cultures and societies a primacy for health promotion (Helman, 2007; Mabhala and Wilson eds., 2008) for providing anti-racist perspectives, while recognising the differences and diversity that exist within the different communities (Douglas, 1995; Ewles ed., 2005). The following essay was aimed at examining a health issue within a chosen neighbourhood. The community in focus was adult gay males in Birmingham.
According to the Office for National statistics (ONS, 2009a) mid-year population estimates the total population of West Midlands in 2009 was 5,431,100 of which 1,028,700 were residents of Birmingham, comprising a male population of 504,200 and a female population of 524,600, and was accounted as the second most populous city after London, moreover the multiethnic demography (ONS, 2009b) made inequalities in the health sector a possibility. According to the health profile for Birmingham (2010) by the Association of Public Health Observatories (APHO, 2010) the health of people in Birmingham is worse than the England average with over...

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