British Industrialization Essay

749 words - 3 pages

British industrialization was concentrated in those areas which
had experienced prior proto-industrialisation. Therefore proto-industry
was necessary for factory industry---discuss.

British industrialization was concentrated in those areas which had
experienced prior proto-industrialisation. Therefore proto-industry
was necessary for factory industry---discuss.

One model, proposed by Mendels, was that proto-industry was
responsible for the rapid expansion in population, in what he called
demo-economic systems. This was mainly on the basis that rural
peasants required a labour force to produce output, and by increasing
fertility, they were able to breed one. Despite this, Medick suggested
that the reason for increased fertility was earlier marriage, as the
previous relationship between agriculturally inherited land and
marriage, had been removed by the growth of industries. Levine cited
that this population growth was vital, as it created an industrial
proletariat, which led to further expansion in rural domestic
industries. It was a self-sustaining proto-industrial spiral, that
generated the labour, capital, entrepreneurship, commercial
agriculture and supra-regional markets required for factory
industrialisation. Ogilvie and Coleman reject this, claiming that
there was no evidence that it was proto-industrialization which led to
the development of commercial agriculture, rather than agricultural
surpluses which led to the growth of both proto-industries and towns
and cities. Empirical case-studies of proto-industrial regions all
overeurope were adduced to show that not all proto-industrial regions
had a higher fertility rate, faster demographic growth, lower ages of
marriage, or a breakdown in the family and gender division of labour.
ItÂ’s unclear that proto-industry provide cheap labour, as in
1760s-1820s, wage rate slowly increased, and the rate of
industrialisation and income growth were also very slow.

Further suggested reasons by Deyon and Mendels that profits and
capital created by proto-industry was one these developments and it
was suggested that they would then be re-invested into industrial
revolution production. However, evidence suggests that this was just
one of many sources of capital, and it should not be singled out for
any great importance. Moreover, proto-industry profits and capital
often were re-invested into agricultural and land-holding, rather than
industrial development.

Another model refers to the MarxistsÂ’ view of transition to
capitalism. Proto-industrialisation was taken as rural peasants
turning to industrial production, such as textiles, straw-plaiting;
glass making and creating domestic and international markets where
this produce was sold. This is clearly an early capitalist
development, with the emergence of industrial production and the
commercialisation of trade.

Medick theorized an outline of the stages for proto-industrialization
to develop into...

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