Understandin How Mammalian Pulmonary And Circulatory Systems Increase The Delivery Of Oxygen To Cells

2514 words - 10 pages

Male vs. Female Differences in Vital Statistics

I. Introduction
The respiratory system and circulatory system are both critical to the life of a mammal. The respiratory and circulatory systems depend on each other greatly. An organism needs both systems to be functioning in order to sustain life. Oxygen needs to be exchanged throughout the body, and the respiratory system and circulatory system are the modes of transportation for the oxygen. The respiratory system establishes the breathing of an animal by the transfer of oxygen, which in return allows the circulatory system to work. According to Barilleaux (2014), the gap between respiratory tissues and aerobic tissues was bridged by the circulatory system.
Humans and other mammals have a closed circulatory system also known as the cardiovascular system. As explained by Ebashi (2007), the heart is the muscular pump that powers the entire circulatory system by the use of metabolic energy that elevates the hydrostatic pressures of the blood, that then flows through the vessels and returns to the heart. The circulatory process allows the blood cells to exchange the oxygen to the body cells, and for the body cells to exchange any unwanted wastes back into the blood cells.
The circulatory system is made up of arteries, capillaries, and veins, which are classified by the direction they carry the blood. Arteries carry blood away from the heart to other organs of the body. Within these arteries are smaller networks of arterioles, which are smaller vessels that transfer blood into the beds of microscopic vessels with porous walls called capillaries. The capillaries contain an outer membrane to maintain its shape and layer of epithelium for the exchanges between the vessels and tissues. Chemicals and gasses then pass through the capillary walls and are diffused between the blood and fluid surrounding the cells of the tissue. The capillaries eventually converge into , which then turn into veins that return the blood to the heart (Barrilleaux 2014).
The heart is made up of two separate muscular chambers called the atria and ventricles. The atria are the chambers that receive the oxygen deprived blood that has just gone through the entire body. Ventricles are responsible for pumping oxygen-rich blood out of the heart to be circulated through the body. The human heart is made up of two, thin walled atria on the right and left side. These atria allow the heart to perform double circulation, which is pumping two separate circuits. The pulmonary circuit pumps blood cells that are without oxygen from the right side of the heart to the pulmonary arteries and lungs. The systemic circuit is distinguished as oxygenated blood pumped from the right side to organs and tissues throughout the body (Reece et al., 2011).
The heart undergoes a rhythmic cycle of contracting and relaxing. One complete cycle of the heart contracting to pump blood out and then relaxing to fill the chambers...

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