Part A: Background information:
Acids and bases are currently used in many various ways in our society and it is very important in daily uses. To many industries, acids and bases are a common factor as it is used to make fertilizer, cleaning supplies, or even sources of food or medicines to provide an easy life style. Acid is a substance with particular chemical properties, acids reacts with certain metals to produce hydrogen gas, acids also reacts with carbonate and bicarbonates to produce carbon dioxide gas, it has a sour taste. Some properties of acids are, it produces H+ (as H3O+) ions in water (the hydronium ion is a hydrogen ion attached to a water molecule), Reacts with bases to form salt and water, turns blue litmus paper to red it has a pH range of between 1 and 6. According to Bronsted-Lowry theory the acids form a conjugate base after donating a proton. Base is a substance with particular chemical properties; it produces OH- ions in water, its aqueous (water) solutions conduct and are electrolytes. It turns red litmus paper to blue. Reacts with acids to form salt and water, it has pH rage of between 8 and 14. According to Bronsted-Lowry theory the base forms a conjugate acid when it receives a proton. Considering the pH scale shows how strong or weak an acid or a base is. Acids and bases can be called strong acids and strong bases when they are completely ionized when dissolved in water. Strong acids react completely with water to produce hydrogen ions H+.
For example: when looking at hydrochloric acid which is a strong acid it is combined with Hydrogen and Chlorine forming its product:
HCI H+ + CI-
Hydrochloric acid Hydrogen + Chlorine
The ions of a strong acid like hydrochloric acid do not recombine; therefore this equation shows its ionization with a single arrow, meaning that only the ions are present in its aqueous solution. Weak acids are acids that dissociated incompletely, releasing only some of its hydrogen atoms into the solution. Weak acids form an equilibrium mixture which shows the strength of a weak acid. A weak acid has both molecules and ions in its solution. Weak base is not fully ionized in water; one of the best known weak bases is ammonia. Ammonia is weak base it doesn’t contain hydroxide ions but it reacts with water to produce ammonium ions and hydroxide ions.
For example when looking at ammonia reaction:
Some example chemical equations of acids and bases
NH3 (aq) + H2O (l) NH4+ (aq) + OH- (aq)
• When an acid and base neutralise each other, the product will always be salt and water.
(HCL) + (NaOH) (NaCl) + (H2O)
Hydrochloric acid Sodium hydroxide Sodium chloride (a salt) Water
• When a metal reacts with acid, it produces salt and...