From the time one is born, the infant begins to constantly change throughout his or her’s life. Human development occurs at different stages, throughout the life span. A child will experience many milestones from birth to toddlerhood, throughout early and middle childhood, and several theories for these milestones. Sigmund Freud, Jean Piaget, and Erik Erikson classify their different theories of the stages of life in three unique domains: physical, cognitive, and psychosocial/emotional.
Infancy/Toddlerhood (0-3) and Domain Physical
The physical domain of lifespan development is continually changing the human body physically throughout one’s life time. During the infancy and toddlerhood, these physical changes happen very rapidly and permit human growth, developing teeth, and motor skills. While babysitting my two year old cousin that I have helped with since she was three months old, I have learned that this stage in life is the most rapid part of the physical domain. This is because at three months my cousin, Brileigh, was totally dependent. Several months down the road she was still mostly dependent but, Brileigh was starting to help hold her bottle. Before too long she was learning to talk and walk. Now, at the age of two she can walk, run, talk, climb, and is very independent. Every time I see Brileigh, I am amazed at how much she learns within a day to a week’s time. Sigmund Freud observed different stages of childhood development and gave each stage a name in accordance to the child’s body. This research became known as psychosexual development. The stages are given an age range then a title of a particular body part. Birth to one year is the oral stage, one to three is the anal stage, three to six is the phallic stage, six through puberty is the latency stage, and puberty until death is the genital stage (Papalia & Feldman, 2012, p. 27). According to Freud, “the sexually activity of the Oral Stage is undifferentiated from the ingestion of food, and the aim is to incorporate the object” (Garcia, 1995). “Via the act of “ingesting” the infant is taking in a complex substance composed of interwoven psychophysical elements” (Garcia, 1995). Brileigh, like any other child, would grab anything just to stick it in her mouth. This makes Freud’s oral stage theory true. Considering she has four older brothers that have many toys, it is hard to keep their belongings out of her mouth.
Early Childhood (3-6) and Domain Cognitive
Early childhood development seems to be one of the most favorite age groups (3-6) of a child for an adult. This is because the child is able to interact more with and adult, than before. It is also the favorite age group because the child is getting taller, filling out, and learning many new things. During the cognitive domain a child develops their memory, grasps new concepts, and makes decisions. Jean Piaget’s theory would be more equip for the cognitive domain. Piaget studied a child’s...