No one knew how heredity (passing traits) worked until Gregor Mendel, an Austrian monk, crossbred pea plants in his monastery kitchen garden in 1865. In 1869, gene-hunters found rod-like shape in the nucleus of cells that turned red when dye was added. They named this “Chromosome”, from a Greek word, chroma for color. They also went deeper into the cell and discovered a wispy microscopic thread within the chromosomes, which they named DNA. There were several scientists who did not know about Mendel’s breakthrough at the time, but then in 1900, they rediscovered his experiment and old journal copies.
Francis Crick (American) and James D. Watson (Englishman) had a problem with DNA ...view middle of the document...
They both were officially warned not to continue on the DNA work by the Cavendish Laboratory head.
Crick and Watson won their Nobel Prizes along with Wilkins nine years later at Stockholm, Sweden in 1962. Franklin was not awarded the Nobel Prize because she died from cancer at the age of 37 in 1958 but was recognized in Watson’s and Crick’s book called The Double Helix. The scientists discovered the DNA recipe for making proteins, the building blocks of all living things. The DNA’s code is four chemicals are adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T).
Scientists learned how to transfer genes in the mid 1970’s. The drug insulin that diabetics use was affected in 1982. The biotechnology technique was used in the pharmaceutical industry in U.S. companies by 1983. The Human Genome Project official start date was in October 1990. It is about mapping the genes that are located in the chromosomes, so it will be easier for scientists to locate the specific traits and target diseases. Scientists proved cloning in 1996. This could be done on animals, plants or humans creating exact copies. The Human Genome Project’s first draft was completed 2000.
I recommend this novel to anyone who wants to learn more about DNA and is interested in science. I enjoyed reading the book because I learned several things about the history of DNA. I liked how Crick and Watson never gave up and kept going on their DNA structure even after the problem they faced with Franklin and her college.
I knew the DNA information from before reading this book because I took Biology in high school as well as Vancouver Community College. I also did some extra research by looking up some more information on anything that was related to DNA such as protein synthesis and other things that was related to and or close to...