This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Understanding Parkinsons Disease Essay

829 words - 3 pages

Understanding Parkinsons Disease

Parkinson's Disease or PD is a common and progressive brain disorder that results from degeneration of nerve cells in the portion of the midbrain that controls body movements. Occurring mostly in older adults that are over sixty years of age, the disease is characterized by gradual, progressive muscle rigidity, tremors and clumsiness. When Parkinson's disease occurs, degenerative changes are found in an area of the brain known as the substantia nigra, which produces dopamine, a chemical substance that enables people to move normally and smoothly. Parkinson's disease is characterized by a severe shortage of dopamine. It is this deficiency that causes the symptoms of the disease. Parkinson's disease was first formally described in "An Essay on the Shaking Palsy," published in 1817 by a London physician named James Parkinson, but it has probably existed for many thousands of years. Its symptoms and potential therapies were mentioned in the Ayurveda, the system of medicine practiced in India as early as 5000 BC, and in the first Chinese medical text, Nei Jing, which appeared 2500 years ago.

Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease
There are several things to look out for as far as determining if one has Parkinson's disease. Usually the first symptom is a tremor of a limb (trembling or shaking) especially when the body is at rest, not moving. The tremor usually begins at one side of the body, more frequently in one hand. Other common symptoms include a general muscle stiffness and slow movement, rigid limbs, an awkward or shuffling walk, and a stooped posture. People that are affected with Parkinson's disease often show reduced facial expression or a complete loss of it and their voices change. It becomes soft. Their intellectual ability doesn't change until the advanced stages of the disease, when it slowly deteriorates.

Causes of Parkinson's disease
The actual cause of Parkinson's disease is not known. Although a defective gene was recently found in a few families with extraordinarily high incidences of PD, most researchers believe that in the vast majority of cases, genetic factors alone are not responsible for causing the disease. Instead, it is suspected that Parkinson's usually results from the combination of a genetic predisposition and an as yet unidentified environmental trigger. There are many known theories about the cause of Parkinson's disease. Researchers have reported families with apparently inherited Parkinson's disease for more than a...

Find Another Essay On Understanding Parkinsons Disease

Discuss Parkinson's disease and criticize South African Parkinson's Association Phamplet

3910 words - 16 pages maximum functioning .Reference listAlexander, M. Fawcett, J. Runciman, P (2000) Nursing Practice Hospital& Home. The Adult. 2nd edition. London, Harcourt Publishers Ltd.Bhatia K (1998) Guidelines for the management of Parkinson's disease Hospital Medicine. Vol 59 (6) pp469-480Brooks, DJ. (2002), Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry Vol 3 p.p:i10-i16Caird, F. (1991) Rehabilitation of Parkinsons Disease. London, Champman &amp

Parkinson’s Disease Essay

1485 words - 6 pages essential and this relationship should receive further research attention in future years. Search Method Criteria The literature review was completed from an assortment of health, social, and medical science literature databases (PsycINFO, PubMed, Embase, SCOPUS and CINAHL) and search phrases included: Parkinson/Parkinsons/Parkinson’s Disease + depression, anxiety, cognitive, dementia, levodopa, MAO-B inhibitors, dopamine agonist + side/adverse

Brainstem Injuries and the Neuropsychologist

1362 words - 5 pages . Various brainstem nuclei provide a key source of particular neurotransmitters such as the locus coeruleus (norepinephrine), the raphe nuclei (serotonin), and the substantia nigra (dopamine). Reduction in norepinephrine or serotonin most likely affects arousal and emotion (www.neuropsychologycentral.com, 2002). Research has suggested that Parkinsons disease is related to loss of dopamine in the substantia nigra. Lesions of one

The Development of Gene Manipulation

1679 words - 7 pages , such as immunodeficiencies, hemophilia, thalassaemia, Parkinsons disease, sickle cell anemia, Muscular Dystrophy, cancer and cystic fibrosis. These disorders have been chosen for somatic cell therapy because they are caused by single gene defects. Although somatic cell therapy and its applicable benefits for humanity provide numerous treatment alternatives, complete correction of a genetic disorder or the replacement of multiple genes in somatic

Alzheimer's Disease

4193 words - 17 pages Alzheimer's Disease Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a progressive degenerative disease of unknown aetiology, as first described by Alois Alzheimer (1907). According to Shoenberg et. al (1987), it is the commonest cause of dementia in the elderly with an incidence ranging from 2.5 to 5 per thousand. Furthermore, this incidence has grown in

Xenotransplantation

2023 words - 8 pages will in this paper, it is important to note this medical procedure does more than improve the odds for those awaiting an organ transplant. Instead the benefits of this procedure reach to include those with diabetes, Alzheimer's, Parkinsons, and those who have suffered a stroke. As with any new technological advance, there is a bevy of issues and points to discuss before one can form an educated conclusion about what is best for society

The Role of the Frontal Lobes

5466 words - 22 pages pseudodepression, which includes apathy and indifference, to a disorder of self-activation (1990 cited in Stuss & Gow, 1992). Several degenerative conditions such as Parkinsons disease, Huntington’s disease, Multiple Sclerosis may evoke depression as well as trauma and head injury, stroke and brain tumours (Guze & Gitlin, 1994). McNaugton (1995) suggests anxiety may be a memory disorder and attributes anxiety to

everyday science

10827 words - 43 pages . • Vaccine = helps the body fight a virus disease by triggering its natural defenses in advance. • Encephalitis is a viral disease. • Muscle stiffness is caused by a disease called ___ (Parkinsons) (chk) • Wool sorters disease is actually what-Anthrax • Which disease was once known as white plague Tuberculosis • Beingn tertain malaria is caused by plasmodium vivax. • The life history of human malarial parasite in

When the Bubble Burst

1539 words - 6 pages By the time I arrived state side from my second tour in the Middle East the housing bubble had already burst. I noticed a drastic change in the way that many of my friends and family were living. Several of my friends that worked in real estate had sold their boats and seconds houses. My own stock portfolio had lost a third of its value. My sister and her husband had defaulted on their home mortgage leaving them scrambling for a place to live. I

phase diagram

4456 words - 18 pages Introduction: Chemical equilibrium is a crucial topic in Chemistry. To represent and model equilibrium, the thermodynamic concept of Free energy is usually used. For a multi-component system the Gibbs free energy is a function of Pressure, Temperature and quantity (mass, moles) of each component. If one of these parameters is changed, a state change to a more energetically favorable state will occur. This state has the lowest free energy

Revolutionary Work of Art

1890 words - 8 pages Walter Benjamin emphasizes in his essay, “The Work of Art in the Age of its Technological Reproducibility” that technology used to make an artwork has changed the way it was received, and its “aura”. Aura represents the originality and authenticity of a work of art that has not been reproduced. The Sistine Chapel in the Vatican is an example of a work that has been and truly a beacon of art. It has brought a benefit and enlightenment to the art

Similar Essays

Parkinson´S Disease Essay

1734 words - 7 pages Parkinson’s disease after him. James was not the only one to contribute to better understanding Parkinson’s disease there were many others involved. Jean-Martin Charcot, Frederic Lewy, Konstantin Nikolavitch Tretiakoff, Rolf Hassler, Arvid Carlsson, and Kazlmierz Funk all found or discovered different links, symptoms, or treatments for Parkinson’s disease. (All About Parkinson's Disease) Parkinson’s is very hard to diagnose in younger patients

10 Years Beyond: The Role Of Biomedical Computing In Future Health Care

1097 words - 5 pages parkinsons disease forcing an early diagnosis. The success of this particular research will mean that concerned patients will be able to perform a test for parkinsons with a phone call rather than a complicated and expensive brain scan. With the integration of many fields, the further dependence of genetics on computer science is only bound to an increase mainly because DNA is principally a linear code of proteins. Health care has already seen the acute

Advantages, Disadvantages, Limitation, And Recommendation Of Cell Manufacturing

981 words - 4 pages parents that possess superior characteristics and quality and are more resistant to disease. Other than that, this also helps the biomedical researches to do their research on specific diseases that can be found in both human and animal by testing it on the clones first (Pros and Cons of Animal Cloning, 2014). This is beneficial towards the medical research on understanding disease and finding cures, vaccines and even preventions towards

Parkinson's Essay

1759 words - 8 pages understanding and treatment have been made, Parkinson disease is still considered an idiopathic disease (Lau & Breteler, 2006). Many areas of the disease process have been noted, but no one has been marked as the primary causative process, as well as little has been solidified in diagnostic procedures to identify Parkinson Disease in living patients. Parkinson disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, falling behind Alzheimer’s