Understanding Tcp/Ip Essay

1732 words - 7 pages

Introduction ? What is TCP/IP How TCP/IP works Application of TCP/IP Conclusions References Additional information: My report plan Understanding TCP/IP 1.0 INTRODUCTION This appendix discusses the TCP/IP architecture and provides a basic reference model that can help us to understand the importance of TCP/IP in the development of the Internet. It explains TCP/IP terminology and describes the fundamental concepts underlying the TCP/IP protocol suite. Generally, TCP/IP is described using three to five functional layers. To describe TCP/IP based firewalls more precisely, we have chosen the common DoD reference model, which is also known as the Internet reference model. The figure below illustrates the Internet reference model.1.1 WHAT IS TCP/IP The name TCP/IP is derived from only two of the dozens of protocols that compose the suite which are the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP).TCP/IP originated out of research into networking protocols that the Department of Defense (DoD) initiated in 1969. In 1968, the DoD Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) began researching the network technology that is now called packet switching The original focus was to facilitate communication among the DoD community. However, the network that was initially constructed as a result of this research, called ARPANET, gradually became known as the Internet. The TCP/IP protocols played an important role in the development of the Internet by becoming the standard protocols for ARPANET.Due to the history of the TCP/IP protocol, it is often referred to as the DoD protocol suite or the Internet protocol suite.4 Process/application layer consists of applications and processes that use the network.3 Host-to-host transport layer provides end-to-end data delivery services.2 Internetwork layer defines the datagram and handles the routing of data.1 Network access layer consists of routines for accessing physical network.2.0 HOW TCP/IP WORKS In this section, we describe some of the protocols that compose TCP/IP using the Internet reference model. We also define the function of each protocol and define terms that are specific to TCP/IP.2.1 Network Access Layer This layer is concerned with getting data across a specific type of physical network (such as Ethernet, Token Ring, etc). This design reduces the need to rewrite higher levels of a TCP/IP stack when new physical network technologies are introduced (such as ATM and Frame Relay).The functions performed at this level include encapsulating the IP datagram into frames that are transmitted by the network and it also maps the IP addresses to the physical addresses used by the network.Data to be transmitted is received from the internetwork layer. The network access layer is responsible for routing and must add its routing information to the data. The network access layer information is added in the form of a header, which is appended to the beginning of the data.In Windows NT, the protocols in this...

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