The impact of the crisis on employment of women has long been underestimated in Czech Republic, but also in whole world. In the early stages of the recession 2008 was thought that the job losses will typically affects mainly male sector. Now, when delayed effects of the crisis and the recent saving measures in the Czech public sector, which primarily affects women, it is clear that the employment crisis has also hit women.
Job losses and pay cuts in the public sector, which represented a typical response of European governments to the economic crisis, significantly threaten gender equality in access to employment. Women represent in the EU almost 70% of employees in the public sector, so any action which falls on number of jobs and their wages in the public sector will always hit stronger women than men. In addition, the public sector in many countries is stabilizating gender equality in employment because it mostly offers better ...view middle of the document...
In the United Kingdom would be the repeal of 710,000 jobs in the public sector till 2017 and it is expected that out of work will be twice as many women than men. Thus job losses will affects approximately half a million of women. In some countries, such as Spain, Portugal and Greece were cuts focused on the areas in which they mostly work women, such as education, health and social care, which deteriorated the position of women even more. For example in Italy is out of job 19,700 women from education sphere and it is expected that in the coming years there will be further released 87 000 women.
The crisis slowed down the positive numbers that were achieved throughout the Europe in the integration of women in the labor market. The female employment rate continued to rise steadily until 2008, when Europe was hit by the crisis, but has since stagnated. In 2011 the employment rate of women, on average, 62.3% (in 2008 it was 62.8% and in 2005 60%). In 22 Member States of the EU crisis reversed the progress in achieving the EU targets for employment of women set to 60% (in 2010, the Treaty of Lisbon) and 75% (by 2020, Strategy of Europe 2020). The decline was most pronounced in Greece, Spain, Romania, Slovak Republic, Ireland, Denmark, the United Kingdom, Portugal, Slovenia, Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia, where the employment rate for women in 2011 had fallen to or below 2005 levels, reversing the progress of several years.
The crisis has undermined years of progress towards integration of women in the labor market (to achieve equality in paid work). The decline in employment of women will be difficult to overcome, because many women were forced to move from paid to unpaid work to offset the decline of public services and loss of household wealth. It is also because in the current employment policies the governments focus more on reducing (male) unemployment than the increase in supply of (female) jobs. In the coming years statistics will capture the final overall impact of austerity measures in the public sector on a wages of women and the numbers would not be very promising.