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Unification Of Germany Essay

2761 words - 11 pages

Unification of Germany

On January 18, 1871, the German Empire was proclaimed宣佈æˆç«‹. It is a
turning point轉æ©é»ž in the European history, and was one of the remote
causesé å›  that led to the outbreak of the First World War. In fact, the
success of German unification was due to the interplay互相交織 of many
factors.

Ideological
-----------

a. Liberalism: Ideas of liberalism had been sown by the French
Revolution and Napoleonic Wars. During the upheaval巨變, such French
ideals of liberty, equality and fraternityåšæ„› were spread to Germans.
Besides, a varietyå„種 of Napoleon's reforms like those in education,
trade, administration, taxation and laws had encouraged the rise of
middle class who then became the backbone骨幹 of the German unification
movement.

b. Nationalism: Napoleon grouped all Germans into a big state, i.e.
the Confederation of the RhineèŠèŒµæ²³é‚¦è¯. The Germans tasted嘗試éŽnational
unity on one hand; yet they disliked the alien French rule on the
other. Nationalism thus appeared. Though Germany was once again
fragmented分裂 in 1815, the desire for national unity lingeredæ®ä¹‹ä¸åŽ».

Political
=========

Domestic國內:

a. Rise of Prussia: In the Battle of Waterloo滑éµç›§ 1814 Prussia played a
decisive role in defeating Napoleon. This raised her prestige
considerably among not only the German states but the European Great
Powers. Prussia became one of the "Big Five" which dominated the
Congress of Vienna. She got many territorial gains.

b. Vienna Settlement: At the Congress of Vienna, for the sake由於 of her
contribution to the victory over Napoleon, and the need to
counterbalance制衡 both France and Austria, Prussia was given additional
population and extra-territories such as 2/5 of Saxony薩克森,
Pomenrania波美隆尼亞, Posenå¡æ£®, the Rhineland, Danzig旦澤 and so on. Her
population and size were almost doubled. She also shared dual
leadership with Austria in the German Confederationå¾·æ„å¿—é‚¦è¯ (the Bund).
Prussia was so in a strong position to challenge Austria in the German
family.

c. Lesson教訓 of 1848 Revolution: Nationalism and liberalism went hand
in hand during the 1848 Revolution. The Frankfurt Assembly法蘭克ç¦è­°æœƒorganized
by unarmedæ‰‹ç„¡å¯¸éµ and idealistic professors and university students
attempted in vain失敗to create a liberal and united Germany. Henceforth自此,
nationalism, or better say, Realpolitikç¾å¯¦æ”¿æ²», instead of liberalism,
became the chief driving force動力 of the German unification movement.
As Bismarck said in 1862, "The great question of the day shall not be
decided by speeches言論 and resolutions決議 of the majority, …. which was
proven a failure in 1848, …. but by blood and iron." Besides, that
Prussia did not abolish the liberal...

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