This assignment will show the areas of development from conception to age sixteen years, the theories of development and consider how it influences practice. It will look at physical development, and communication and language development in the age ranges of birth to three years and three to seven years. Also included in this assignment will be the theoretical perspectives which relate to my chosen areas of development and the evaluation as to how they may influence practice which affects the development of children.
The first few years of babies life’s they will undergo rapid social, emotional, physical and cognitive development. Every child is an individual meaning not all children’s development happens in the same way or at the same time. Each child develops at their own pace reaching milestones at different times in their development. In general, child development progresses:
• From head to toe. Beginning at the top of the body and gradually moving downwards.
• From inner to outer. Firstly gaining control of muscles close to the head and then moving outwards so the large muscles in the shoulders and upper arms are first and the extremities last.
• From simple to complex. Children progress from simple words to complex sentences.
• From general to specific. Emotional responses involve the whole body in young babies but may only involve the face in an older child (HLC, ND).
Altogether there are seven areas of development. Each of the areas are interdependent and many activities can promote these areas of development.
Physical development covers the aspects of development that we can see happening. This includes fine motor skills, gross motor skills, hand eye coordination and movement skills. There are many different ways of children’s physical development being supported. Space and equipment should be provided for movement skills and gross motor skills. Alongside having space, necessary material and equipment should be provided to help improve children’s fine motor skills. To enhance hand-eye-coordination activities such as cooking, sewing and woodworking should be organised.
There are expected patterns of physical development that every child will be expected to reach. For example, ‘by six months old a child will:
• Turn their head towards sound and movement
• Smile at familiar faces and voices
• Look and reach for objects
• Hold and shake a rattle
Between six months and one year a child will:
• Move from sitting with support to sitting alone
• Roll from their tummy to their back
• Begin to creep, crawl or shuffle
• Pull on or push against adults hands or furniture to reach standing position
Between one and two years a child will:
• Begin to walk
• Feed themselves
• Wave goodbye
• Shake head for no
Between two and three years a child will:
• Kneel to play
• Pour liquids
• Use pencils to make marks and circular scribbles
• Throw objects
Between three and four years a child will:
• Walk on tiptoes
• Walk up and down the stairs
• Gain control...