UNMEE in Ethiopia and Eritrea
Akiko Toda 11100311
Word Count 998
In June 2000, after the two years of a border dispute, Ethiopia and Eritrea agreed on Cessation of Hostilities organised by Algeria and the Organization of African Unity (OAU). In July, the Security Council established the United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE), and in September, UNMEE was authorised by the Council to ensure the observance of security commitments and to monitor the cessation of hostilities. UNMEE was the most recent case of a traditional peacekeeping operation deployed from 2000 to 2008. The paper analyse the change of UNMEE mandate and the challenges the mission faced.
What were the main points of the mandate (if any)?
First of all UNMEE's original mandate are almost same from the Agreement on Cessation of Hostilities. Guttry (2000, p.83) claims that “besides committing themselves to an immediate cessation of hostilities, in the Agreement the two parties formally requested the UN to deploy a peacekeeping mission under the auspices of the OAU.” Its mandate was to cooperate with the two parties of conflicting nations, sustain the cessation of conflict, and support a future peacekeeping operation (Bellamy and Williams 2010). Other than the self-defence in the case of being attacked, the operation had no right to any recourse to armed force for the mission goal (Gutty 2000). Thus the mission was to monitor rather than to act.
Did the mandate change over time?
The adjustment of Resolution 1430 of August 14th, 2002, brought UNMEE´s mandate to support the Boundary Commission in carrying out its delimitation decisions in an orderly and expeditious manner, involving the following task “demining in key areas to support demarcation; and administrative and logistical support for the Field Offices of the Boundary Commission” (Security Council 2002).
It added another emphasis to the mission for greater assist of the Boundary Commission activities that served as an essential part in the form of the Agreement on Cessation of Hostilities. It was due to Ethiopia's disagreement that brought difficulties to the Boundary Commission in conducting its mandate and facing the stalemate that limited UNMEE mission (Guttry 2000).
The Human Rights Field Presence played a key role implementing part of UNSC Resolution 1320 tasks, which is to "coordinate the mission’s activities in the temporary security zone (TSZ) and areas adjacent to it with humanitarian and human rights activities of the United Nations and other organizations in those areas".
The main activities of the Human Rights Office (HRO) was guided by the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), which was established in May 2001. While the human rights component within UNMEE originally aimed at observing the human rights situation in the TSZ, the trend has positively changed towards technical cooperation projects and human rights awareness activities for the vulnerable citizens,...