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North American Labour Market Gender Neutral And Color Blind?

1285 words - 6 pages

Race emerged in Canada during the colonial period and typically refers to the arrangement of power relations within a society, providing a few with sense of belongingness and superiority, while leaving many at a serious disadvantage (Nagra Lecture 2 2014). The paper will argue that various forms of discrimination still exist in the Canadian labour market in order to sustain structured inequalities between Whites and non-White immigrants. Although immigrants are able to meet high qualification standards set by the Canadian immigration policies they often fail to obtain employment that matches their skill set and level of education (Anisef, Sweet and Frempong 2003). The paper then analyzes historic changes in the Canadian immigration policies and explains how they were targeted to achieve specific short-term economic goals in the neoliberal Canada (Green and Green 2004). The paper also focuses on the struggle of temporary immigrant workers in the Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program (SAWP) and analyses factors leading to inclusion of Mexico in the SAWP. Lastly the paper concludes that, formation of Canadian immigration policies are largely influenced by the demands of Canadian employers and fail to account for welfare of the immigrant workers.
The paper argues that race of a job applicant has a consequential impact on his/her economic success in the US labor market. In what is assumed to be a meritocratic society, North American employers tend to use the race of an applicant as a screening device while analyzing their résumés and deciding whether to callback job applicants for an interview or not. Bertrand and Mullainathan (2004) suggest that résumés with White sounding names are 50% more likely to receive a callback for an interview than résumés with Black sounding names despite having identical credentials for the participants. Although résumérésumés with Black-male sounding names were 52% likely to receive a callback, Black-female sounding names were only 22% likely to receive a callback (Bertrand and Mullainathan 2004). The larger gap in callback rates between male and female job applicant can be explained by, “intersectionality”, i.e. difference in experiences of individuals resulting from an intersection of different forms of discrimination like: age, sex, disability, etc. (Nagra Lecture 2 2014). In the case above résumés with Black-female sounding name are less likely to receive callback than Black-males because not only do they belong to a racial minority but also to a gender which is deemed by the society to be less competent to men (mentally and physically). Bertrand and Mullainathan (2004) also suggest that improvement in credentials for a non-White job applicant fails to increase his/her likeliness to gain employment in North America (increase in callback rate of 8%) when compared to their White counterparts (27% increase in callback rate). These findings imply that expected returns from higher education and additional job experience...

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