Universal Declaration Of Human Rights (Passports And Visas)

1112 words - 4 pages

Universal Declaration of Human Rights(Passports and Visas)In 1948, the United Nations created the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The declaration granted people the right to leave their own country or any other country, and to return. To travel across country boundaries, many countries require citizens to have a passport along with permission from the government. A passport is an official government document that certifies a person's identity and their citizenship. It also permits a citizen to travel abroad or through a foreign country; or it can serve as an official permit when issued by a foreign country, allowing transportation of goods. Issue of a passport binds the issuing country as a guarantor for its citizens and their behavior, and asks the visiting country to assist the traveler.In America, a citizen cannot leave or return to the country without a passport. However, a president can grant abroad traveling in lieu of a passport. In addition to serving as proof of identity and citizenship, it also represents the citizen's allegiance to the United States. A passport may be revoked which would restrict travel. More importantly, traveling abroad is subject to current issues involving national security, foreign policies, and reasonable governmental regulations. Travel within the boundaries of a particular country should not be restricted, nor require a passport per the Court. Internal passports are a legal document, which grant citizens and aliens the authority to travel within a country. Issuance of internal passports is rare in most Western democracies. They are or were commonplace in Communist countries.As previously stated, passports are issued for travel between countries. Another legal document that allows travel between countries is visas. The host country issues visas and grants permission for a non-citizen (also known as an alien) to enter a country. Issuance of visas is at the discretionary of the host country. In addition, the host country also may determine and limit, both the length of time than an alien may stay in a country, and the activities an alien may carry on while in the country. Visas may be either temporary or permanent. An alien is expected to leave the country at a specified time period when a temporary visa is issued. When a permanent visa is issued, an alien may stay in the country indefinitely, and most likely will apply for nationalization.The most common temporary visas are visitor visas usually issued to tourists. Many countries have a program in place that waives having a visa. The program allows tourists from designated countries (usually countries with a reciprocal arrangement) to enter countries without having visa. Another common temporary visa is issued to business visitors. Most countries allow business visitors to enter for short-term visits (typically for no more than 6 months) to contact customers, attend trade shows and conventions, and engage in other business activities. However, they must be...

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