Universalism Within Romans Essay

1468 words - 6 pages

Universalism Within Romans

18 Consequently, just as one trespass resulted in condemnation for all people, so also one righteous act resulted in justification and life for all people. 19 For just as through the disobedience of the one man the many were made sinners, so also through the obedience of the one man the many will be made righteous.20 The law was brought in so that the trespass might increase. But where sin increased, grace increased all the more, 21 so that, just as sin reigned in death, so also grace might reign through righteousness to bring eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.
Romans 5:18-21

Universalism is a theological concept that has been becoming more and more popular in Christian circles since the mid twentieth century. Its growing popularity is mainly due to the popular writings of theological giants such as Karl Barth and Paul Tillich, who have highly influenced both theologians and biblical scholars alike for the last fifty years. Since its Christian adoption with Origen, Universalism has been understood and presented as a doctrinal view of salvation, which emphasizes the all-encompassing love of God and the belief that all things will be reconciled to God.
In light of its growing popularity many individuals, including scholars and lay-people, claim that traces of this controversial view of salvation can be found in Paul’s Epistles—most notably in Romans 5:18-21. Consequently, making Paul a possible Universalist. Therefore, in this thematic essay I explore the basic understanding of Universalism in the first century Greco-Roman context as well as diverse interpretations of Romans 5—in order to determine if one can properly support such a claim beyond the interpretation of a secluded text, Romans 5:18-21.

The Emergence of Universalism
The formulation of Universalist thought can first be found in the theology of the Greek philosopher, Xenophanes. However it was the Greek writers and Stoics of the third century B.C.E that created the theoretical premise, which can bee found in both Greek and Roman schools of philosophy. By the late Hellenistic period, philosophical and political ideas converged, making Universalism a common thought in more than just the realm of philosophy. We can especially see this in the early first century where society was drenched in universalistic trends. These universalistic trends were still primarily influenced by the philosophical rationale provided by Stoicism and reinforced by middle Platonism (McLean & Aspell, Ancient Western Philosophy, 241). McLean and Aspell specifically discuss this in Ancient Western Philosophy, by stating that…
…within the changing political scene, there was a growing intellectual tension between the poles of universalism and individualism. This intellectual tension, and indeed a nascent universalism, permeated the Graeco-Roman world: The advance of the spirit of universalism was manifested in many ways: . . . Roman architectonic visions of...

Find Another Essay On Universalism Within Romans

Reality and Illusion in Shakespeare's Hamlet - Reality, Appearance and Deception

896 words - 4 pages Reality and Illusion in Hamlet   Shakespeare’s play, Hamlet, begins with the appearance of a ghost, an apparition, possibly a hallucination. Thus, from the beginning, Shakespeare presents the air of uncertainty, of the unnatural, which drives the action of the play and develops in the protagonist as a struggle to clarify what only seems to be absolute and what is actually reality. Hamlet's mind, therefore, becomes the central force of the

Sub-plots in Hamlet Essay

1118 words - 4 pages Sub-plots in Hamlet   There are many things that critics say make Hamlet a "Great Work," one of which is the way that Shakespeare masterfully incorporates so many sub-plots into the story, and ties them all into the main plot of Hamlet’s revenge of his father’s murder. By the end of Act I, not only is the main plot identified, but many other sub-plots are introduced. Among the sub-plots are trust in the Ghost of King Hamlet, Fortinbras, and

Hamlet as Victim and Hero

1301 words - 5 pages human weaknesses and correct the wrongs created by his uncle.   The soliloquy selected to describe the emotions of Hamlet, after discovering the evil doings of his uncle, is found within the lines one hundred twenty-nine to one hundred fifty-nine (Hamlet Prince 71). Hamlet's first reaction was to look for a way out, which would be a common response for several humans if they were placed in that situation. He wished for death and questioned

Essay on Light and Dark in Antigone

1188 words - 5 pages Use of Light and Dark in Antigone   The "Golden Age" of Greece is noted for its many contributions to the creative world, especially in its development of the play. These performances strived to emphasize Greek morals, and were produced principally for this purpose. Antigone, by Sophocles, is typical. The moral focused on in Antigone is the conflict between physis (nature) and nomos (law), with physis ultimately presiding over nomos

charant Creon as the Main Character of Antigone

1231 words - 5 pages Creon as the Main Character of Antigone   Throughout the Greek play Antigone by Sophocles, there exists a dispute as to who should receive the designation of main character. Antigone, the daughter of the cursed King Oedipus, as well as Creon, stately king of Thebes, both appear as the key figures in this historic play. I believe that Creon, king of Thebes, should be considered the main character in this work of Greek theater. Three

Free Macbeth Essays: Sleep and Sleeplessness

525 words - 2 pages The Sleep and Sleeplessness Motif in Macbeth We have consciences that function to tell us the difference between right and wrong. If we have clear consciences, we usually possess the ability to sleep. But when our consciences are full of guilt, we experience a state of sleeplessness. In Macbeth, Shakespeare uses the sleep and sleeplessness motif to represent Macbeth's and Lady Macbeth's consciences and the effect Macbeth's conscience has on

Life Outside of Life in Hawthorne’s Wakefield

898 words - 4 pages Life Outside of Life in Hawthorne’s Wakefield   Efficacy lies at the heart of human desires for immortality. Characters throughout literature and art are depicted as wanting to step aside and see what their world would be like without their individual contributions. The literary classic A Christmas Carol and the more recent, but ageless, film It’s Wonderful Life both use outside influences (three ghosts and Clarence the Angel

Essay on Identity in Song of Solomon

2172 words - 9 pages Searching for Identity in Song of Solomon         Abstract: Whether Africans really fly or just escape a monumental burden, perhaps only through death, is a decision Toni Morrison has apparently left to her readers. Never the less, no matter what you believe, within Song of Solomon, the suggestion is, that in order to "fly" you must go back to the beginning, back to your roots. You must learn the "art" from the old messages.   O

The Character of Oedipus in Oedipus and The Infernal Machine

904 words - 4 pages The Character of Oedipus in Oedipus and The Infernal Machine    The stories of Oedipus, as told through Seneca's Oedipus and Cocteau's The Infernal Machine, contain both similarites and differences. Both authors portray the character of Oedipus as being obstinate, ignorant, and inquisitive. Yet Seneca and Cocteau differ on their interpretation of the motives that propelled these characteristics of Oedipus. Seneca portrays Oedipus as a

Okonkwo's Tragic Flaws in Chinua Achebe's Things Fall Apart

3121 words - 12 pages characters, like Odysseus and Oedipus for instance, exemplify the excess of some positive character trait, like pride or honesty, which ironically leads to their personal misfortune. Throughout literary history, particularly within Grecian writings and apparently still evident in today's international pieces, there exists continuity within the human fear of failure. Chinua Achebe's novel, Things Fall Apart, details a remote native African society

Sophocles' Antigone - Antigone Must Challenge Creon

889 words - 4 pages Antigone Must Challenge Creon in Antigone   In his "Funeral Oration" Pericles, Athens's leader in their war with other city-states, rallies the patriotism of his people by reminding them of the things they value. He encourages a sense of duty to Athens even to the point of self-sacrifice. He glorifies the free and democratic Athenian way of life and extravagantly praises those willing to die for it. In Antigone, Creon, Thebes's leader in

Similar Essays

Religion Isn't Blind Essay

1895 words - 8 pages protagonist, Charlie Marlow. Mimicking can also be established from those who colonize. Mr. Kurtz began to cave into the African ways and lived as the Other himself. “’… The wilderness had found him out early, and had taken on him a terrible vengeance for the fantastic invasion. I think it had whispered to him things about himself which he did not know. It echoed loudly within him because he was hollow at the core’” (pg. 133)* Mr. Kurtz has forever been

Monarchs, Alexander The Great And Charles The Great.

1678 words - 7 pages eradicate all the non- Christians. "His greatest wish was to reinstate ancient authority of the city of Rome under his care and influence." (Einhard) On Christmas Day 800 he was crowned emperor of the Romans by Pope Leo III; making him the 1st Holy Roman Emperor "this also meant Roman universalism was fused with Christian universalism."(Perry)Charlemagne reigned from 768-814, although his empire did not sustain long after his death; it was

Notes On The Roman Empire: A World State

1381 words - 6 pages experienced an intellectual crisis. Forsaking the rational and secular values of classical humanism, many Romans sought spiritual comfort in Near Eastern religions. One of these religions, Christianity, won out over its competitors and was made the official religion of the Empire. Christianity would become the principal shaper of the European civilization that emerged from the ruins of Rome.AUGUSTUS AND THE FOUNDATIONS OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE:* Octavian

Q Rqwerqwr Essay

905 words - 4 pages " tend to be those least like us • Survival value (for the nation and person) When describing national culture, most people are talking about dominant culture • But bear in mind: - there will be variations - there are subcultures within every nation - almost everyone knows the norms of the dominant culture - typically only members of subcultures know the norms of their own group NATIONS TRADITIONALLY SHAPE ORGANIZATIONS HOW DOES