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3938 words - 16 pages

ROADS PLANNING Roads are skeleton of any town plan , or ,to vary the simile ,the arteries of the organisms through which the life blood of communication flows. The planner must necessary let the road engineer have the last word regarding road material , gradient camber ,super elevation, radii of horizontal and vertical curves , etc through he should be well aware of the technical factors governing them , and he should regard the traffic engineer or traffic planer as an indispensable colleague . This is not to imply that sheer traffic efficiency should be determinant in preparing the town plan ,for numerous other factors may well be of equal or greater importance , but certainly a Town Plan which dose not ensure the efficient flow of traffic is little more useful than an aircraft which will not fly.Roads are of greater antiquity . They were original pedestrian track along which , before the invention of the wheel ,loads might be dragged on rough sledges ; they became , as human civilization progressed , routes along which animals were driven , led or ridden and horse drawn , later , mechanically propelled vehicle traveled.Always ,roads have had a dual function : as traffic routes and as means of access to dwellings and other buildings ; it is only since the vast growth of transport which has arisen from the invention of the internal combustion that these have been seriously in conflict with each other . Today this conflict is very grave , and leads to terrible injury and loss of life and to grossly wasteful delay in the transport of worker and goods.A casual inspection of road traffic is apt to give the impression of a vast number of vehicle moving about the country in random fusion , but this impression is false . It is remarkable that the average length of a vehicle journey in this country is only six miles. Traffic forms definite patterns which vary form day to day and at different times during each day .Nearly all journeys have a purpose , so that careful observation of existing traffic part tens and analysis of the number of people likely to visit taffic-attacting uses to be established in the future road requirements.In early of the morning there are usually very few vehicles on the roads -in the U.S.A , this traffic is termed as the "O.W.L" . Around 6a.m., however, early manual workers appear on the scene , together with vehicles delivering milk , newspapers, etc. This traffic builds up to peak , usually before 8 am, to be joined by the officewoker and school traffic. The office traffic may continue sporadically until about 10 a.m but by 9 p.m it has diminished greatly even on few specially heavily used routes , while else where it has virtually disappeared.Traffic then falls to a level well below the daily average , being made up of local delivery traffic , but the morning progresses flows tend to build up again as the business traffic increases , and a small quantity of shopping traffic joins the stream . By 11.30 a.m flows are usually...

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