· As cities have grown in area and population in the 20th century,
many geographers have tried to identify and to explain variations in
spatial patterns. Spatial patterns, which show differences and
similarities in land use and/or social groupings within a city,
reflect how various urban areas have evolved economically and
culturally in response to changing conditions over a period of time.
While each city has its own distinctive pattern, studies of other
urban areas have shown that they also demonstrate similar patterns.
Consequently, several models describing and explaining urban structure
have been put forward.
· diagrams showing structure of cities in MEDCsThe two urban models
below are the typical structures of many towns and cities in MEDCs.
· This is a very simple urban model, based upon the American city of
Chicago using the geographical theory that as the town or city grows,
newer buildings are constructed further away from the CBD. Whilst
creating his model, Burgess made the following assumptions;
o The city was built upon flat land, thus giving equal advantages in
all directions, i.e. all morphological features, such as rivers, were
o Land values were the highest in the centre of the city, decreasing
rapidly outwards creating a zoning of urban functions and land use.
o The oldest buildings were found either in or close to the city
centre. Buildings became progressively newer towards the city
o The city contained a range of well defined socio-economic and ethnic
o There were in concentrations of heavy industry such as mining or
· The resulting model consists of five concentric zones;
o 1. Central Business District; The CBD contains the major shops,
offices and administration outlets; it is the centre of commerce,
business and entertainment as well as being the focal point for
o 2. Factories/Industry; Industry developed in the UK in the
nineteenth century, and factories were built around the CBD. Housing,
often terraced in cramp and overcrowded conditions, was constructed
for workers to live in and was...