Which urban planning strategies would be most effective in improving health in developing countries? Provide explanations, relevant evidence and specific examples to support your reasoning.
Urbanization is now increasing in the world especially in developing countries. This causes lots of effect on citizens’ health which is the heart of the ‘standard of living’ in the 19th century (Leon, 2007). Moreover, different strategies are required to solve the consequences of these effects. This essay will describe three effective strategies to improve the health of citizens, inclusive of improving transport system , water and sanitation .
The first strategy to improve the health of city resident in developing countries is to increase the efficiency of transport system to reduce the number of private vehicles. According to Moore et al. (2002), in developing countries, the major cause of morbidity like asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lead ...view middle of the document...
As the result of this, 25 percent of fuel consumption city-wide have been saved so Curitiba became the city to have one of the lowest rates of ambient air pollution (Rabinovitch, 1992). In brief, improved transport system in developing countries can increase the quality of health of people living in the city through reducing negative effects of using private vehicles.
The second strategy would be improved water and sanitation in order to rise the standard of health for people living in developing countries through hygiene. Rabinovitch (1992) mentions that in 2002, lack of proper sanitation was still a problem of 51% of population in developing countries while lack of safe and sufficient drinking water was 21%. Incidentally Godfrey and Julien (2005) also agree that from 30% to 60% of people living in large cities of poor countries have poor living condition without access to piped water or adequate. Moore et al. (2002) and Rabinovitch (1992) remark municipal water sources often can not provide enough water because of the excess demand and over usage of water cause by urbanization. The limited of direct source of water in the home using for families to carry out basic hygiene around the home like hand washing, cleaning food and utensils, bathing, and washing laundry. This strongly related to the hazard for gastrointestinal pathogens. Moreover , the major risk factor for diarrheal, parasitic disease, worm infections, and other infectious diseases including schistosomiasis is caused by the inadequate sanitation. This negative effects is happening to half of the urban population in Africa, Asian and Latin America. In short, the quality of health can be improved by increase the efficiency of the water and sanitation to provide enough water to support citizens’ life better.
To conclude, two effective urban planning strategies to improve health in developing countries are increase the efficiency of transport system, water and sanitation. These two strategies will increase the standard of living of people living in the developing countries through improve health qualities and reduce the negative effect of urbanizaition on health in different ways