Urban Population, Megacities, and Motivation
The social phenomenon of urbanization and emergence of megacities in
the world’s inhabitation pattern is proved to be an effect that
co-exists with human. The biggest launch of the early centuries was
caused by the Industrial Revolution and in the latest years,
Globalization, established a new basis to the issue. It has been
observed to have had a most rapid growing rate in the 20th century due
to mainly internal migration of native people from rural areas to
cities, that in combination with the global growing birth rate and
technology revolution has brought this effect to the proscenium of
more economically developed countries and developing countries of the
world. As a result of this, several “megacities” have been created
with population over 10 million people. Urbanization has raised a
series of major problems in energy supply, homelessness, pollution and
destruction of natural habitats, high concentration of population and
crime. Alongside with urbanization, side effects raised e.g.
conurbation. In general terms urbanization is caused by the mass
population searching for better living standards, more chances of
employment and higher wages, as it is believed that services and
economy are concentrated and mainly developed in cities.
At the beginning of the 20th centuries 2 cities exceeded a million
people population, what is known as millionaire cities. Today there
are over 300 of them.
By the beginning of the 21st century, the populations of world cities
were expected to grow to record levels; Sao Paulo was expected to
reach 26 million; Tokyo, 24 million; and New York, 23 million.
However, as there is no universal agreement over what constitutes an
urban area, there have been two different estimates of populations of
major cities as predicted for the year 2000 (for example, Mexico City
was predicted to reach 26.3 million according to one estimate, and 31
million according to another). More typically, there has been the
extension of vast urbanized regions, for example in New England and on
the Pacific coast of California, in which the next phase of
suburbanization has occurred. It is thus possible to find
under-urbanization, as in provincial Russia where industrial plants
have been constructed without the infrastructure of housing and
recreation facilities, over-urbanization, as in the Latin American and
African centres of urban population, and rapid suburbanization (also
known as deurbanization), as in the United States,...