Urbanization in Romania
Our group is presenting the economic development of Romania. My part includes four topics. They are urbanization, the industrial manufacturing, agriculture economy and informal economy. All of them increased rather rapidly after the fall of the communism. Although the industrial manufacturing in Romania decreased tremendously at first, it later increased.
In the urbanization part, there are statistics showing the annual rates of urban population change in Romania from the pre-world war I period to nowadays. During the pre-first world war period, the annual rate of urban population change was 1.4 per cent and the urban population was 17% of the total population. And during the1941-1948 period, there was a decline of the urban population. That was because of the war and the famines in 1946 and 1947 and the political and economic turmoil after the war. And during 1966-1977 period, the annual growth rate of the urban population increased to 3.12 which is influenced by the administrative reform of 1968. Nowadays, the rate of urbanization is 65% and the urban population is 52.8% of total population. The population in the urban sector keeps increasing.
With the growth in urban sector, the industrial manufacturing in Romania also changes a lot. Here is a graph of the Evolution of Industrial Production and GDP. The blue line in the graph represents the Industrial Production, which shows us the general situation of the Industrial manufacturing in Romania from 1990 to 2010 (Figure 2).
We can see that the Industrial production decreases from 1990-1999 and then increases. That the Industrial production decreases is mainly because of the fall of communism in 1989. During the post-war period, Romania’s industrial manufacturing was state-owned. It was controlled by the central government. There is remarkable development at that time. However, after the fall of communism in 1989, there came the substantial reduction in manufacturing. It is recorded that the industrial production decreases 23.7% when compared to the year before 1990. And the industrial production continues to decreases in 1997 with a decrease rate at 4.9%. In 1999, the production reaches the minimum level, which is 44% of the production recorded in 1989. We can see from the graph that the industrial production in 1999 is lowest in all time and is less than half of 1989’s (1989=100%). Nowadays, the industrial manufacturing in Romania increased continuously. That is because of the development of automotive production, electrical motors and metal forming. In 2008, the industrial manufacturing has 22.8% share in GDP. And in 2011, the industrial manufacturing share reaches 26.5% in GDP.
The next topic is the Agriculture Economy. Here is a picture of the land use in Romania. From the picture, the dark green part is the forests and the shallow green part represents meadows and pastures. Yellow part shows urban or...