Urbanization Problems And Sustainable Development Essay

1399 words - 6 pages

Cities all over the world are developing. As war ended in 1942, a significant number of people move to the city because they want to improve life. This urbanization process is causing a number of problems and should be met by sustainable development policies. In the beginning, it is important to know the definition of sustainable development. There are some definitions for sustainable development, but simply they say that sustainable development is a development which using resources now and preserving them for future generations (Adams, 1999, p.137). This concept has been agreed internationally at a Rio Conference in 1992 to be implemented by all government policies which mostly known as “Agenda 21” principles (Adams, 1999, p.141). This paper will show that traffic jams and housing problems caused by urbanization can be met by sustainable development policies. The structure of this paper will first explain the situation that leads to traffic jams and housing problems. Next, it will elaborate the sustainable development solutions, implications for the solutions, and evaluations how effective the sustainable development solutions solved the problems.

A general situation of urbanization trend in developing countries and developed countries is increasing. In 18th Century only 3% of the world total population lived in urban areas but as projected in 2000 this number will increase at above 50% (UN as cited in Elliot, 1999, p. 144). According to UN (as cited in Elliot, 1999, p.144), it is figured that the total urban population in developing countries has increased from approximately 400 millions people in 1950 to approximately 2000 millions people in 2000. At the same time, total urban population in developed countries is double from 500 millions people to 1000 millions (UN as cited in Elliot, 1999, p. 144). However, the speed of the trends is different between developing countries and developed countries. In the developing countries, the urban population is increasing 500% while in the developed countries only 200% at the same period. In Africa, the number of people who live in cities might increase two-fold by 2010 than in 1950 (Bilham-Boult, Blades, Hancock, Keeling, and Ridout, 1999, p. 127). To conclude, these trends show that urbanization and the problems with it such as traffic jams and housing problems will focus on urban areas or cities around the globe, especially in developing countries.

Increasing population in urban areas is causing traffic jam. The reason for this is the fact that automobile dependence in cities is increasing all over the world from the 1980s to projected 1990s. US, European, Asian, Australian, and Canadian cities increase the number but with a different pace (ESCAP as cited in Newman, 1999, p. 153). Some Asian cities such as Bangkok, Jakarta, and Kuala Lumpur suffer from this automobile dependence trend. The traffic jams in these cities are very crowded. A lot of money is wasted because they burned fossil...

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