Urinary Tract Infection: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis And Treatment

2151 words - 9 pages

Introduction
The urinary tract makes and stores urine, which is one of the waste products of the body. Urine is made in the kidneys and travels down the ureters to the bladder. The urethra in a male is about 8 inches (20cm) long and opens at the end of the penis. The urethra provides an exit for urine as well as semen during ejaculation (Urology Health, 2014). Normal urine is sterile and contains no bacteria. However, bacteria may get into the urine from the urethra and travel into the bladder, causing an infection. A bladder infection is known as cystitis and a kidney infection is known as pyelonephritis (Elsevier, 2010).
The focus of this paper is to present Mr. Lane’s case study of Urinary tract infection; mention pertinent labs, diagnostic tests that were done to obtain the diagnosis and the outcome. There are various factors that cause Urinary tract infection. The factors that lead to the development of the infection will be discussed. This paper will describe the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and the treatment options that were considered to manage the infection.

Epidemiology/ Demographics
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are responsible for more than 8.1 million visits to physicians' offices per year and about five percent of all visits to primary care physicians. Approximately 40 percent of women and 12 percent of men will experience at least one symptomatic urinary tract infection during their lifetime (Sanchez, Gupta, & Hitler, 2012).
Urology Health (2014) reveals that among persons over age 65, bacteriuria affects men and women roughly equally (approximately 40%), with the majority of infections being asymptomatic. Routine screening and treatment has not been found to decrease morbidity or mortality in this population.
Aside from being common in the community, 2% of hospitalized patients with increasing duration of urinary catheterization acquire UTIs, accounting for more than 500,000 nosocomial infections per year. Pyelonephritis occurs between 20–30 times less frequently. Urinary Tract Infections are mostly found in women, occurring in an 8:1 ratio in women to men. The incidence in males 30 cases per 100,000 persons annually, the prevalence is less than 100 cases per 100,000 persons. In non-institutionalized elderly populations, UTIs are the second most common form of infection, accounting for nearly 25% of all infections (Center for Diseases Control and Prevention, 2014.)

Etiology/Pathophysiology
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common types of infections encountered in clinical practice, while they constitute the most common type of nosocomial infection in the United States (Rahn, D. 2010). Bacteria is the most common cause of UTI. According to Urology Health (2014), The bacterium Escherichia coli (E.coli) is the most frequently detected organism. Approximately 80% of the bacteria isolated in UTIs are gram-negative bacilli from the large family Enterobacteriaceae. These bacteria include...

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