Us Civil Rights Essay

1921 words - 8 pages

THE NEW YORK HERALDTHE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT AND MARTIN LUTHER KING Jr.[Martin Luther King Jr., Emmett Till, Rosa Parks and The Montgomery Bus (above)]King was an American clergyman, Nobel Peace Prize winner and one of the principal leaders of the United States civil rights movement.King was born on 15 January 1929 in Atlanta, Georgia. His father was a Baptist minister, his mother a schoolteacher. Originally named Michael, he was later renamed Martin. He entered Morehouse College in 1944 and then went to Crozer Religious Seminary to undertake postgraduate study, receiving his doctorate in 1955. King was influenced by Mahatma Gandhi, a man who ruled off the British Rule from India using non-violent methods.EMMETT TILLEmmet Till was a fourteen a Chicago. In 1955 he went to Mississippi to visit hisgreat uncle and cousins. During his visit, he went to a general store owned by a white man and his wife. As he left the store, he spoke flirtatiously to the white woman. Some nights later, two white men, the white woman's husband and his brother, came knocking on the door Till was staying at, and asked his great-uncle for till. They abducted the teenager, beat and mutilated him, beforefinally shooting him in the head. The got a 70 pound cotton gin, tied it to his neck and disposed him off into the river, leaving him floating in the river. When Till's body was discovered, the two white men were arrested and taken to court to be tried. Although they were guilty and there were enough evidences to convict them, the white judges and juries found them innocent. After the trial, the two white men boasted about their crime. Emmett Till's murder[Emmett Till's Casket (above)]caught great media attention worldwide, with tens of thousands attending his funeral.Returning to the South to become pastor of a Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama, King first achieved national renown when he helped mobilise the black boycott of the Montgomery bus system in 1955. This was organised after Rosa Parks, a black woman, refused to give up her seat on the bus to a white man - in the segregated south, black people could only sit at the back of the bus. The bus driver called the police, who arrested her and fined her $10.MONTGOMERY BUS BOYCOTTBlack people then refused to take bus, using theslogan, "People don't take the bus, don't take it for freedom." The 382-day boycott (13 months) led the bus company to changeits regulations, and the Supreme Court declaredsuch segregation unconstitutional.In 1957, King was active in the organisation of the Southern Leadership Christian Conference (SCLC), formed to co-ordinate protests against discrimination. He advocated non-violent direct action based on the methods of Gandhi.LITTLE ROCKThe Little Rock Nine were a group of African-American students enrolled in Little Rock Central High School in 1957. The ensuing Little Rock Crisis, in which the students were initially prevented from entering the racially segregated school by Arkansas Governor...

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