Usa Majandus Essay

3253 words - 13 pages

USA MajandusHannes AavasteI. Loodus1. Geograafiline asendPõhiterritoorium: 24° pl kuni 49° pl ja 68° lp kuni 124° lp.Alaska: 57° pl kuni 71° pl ja 140° lp kuni 164° lp.Havai saared: 19° pl kuni 25° pl ja 155° lp kuni 170° lp.2. Kliima ja ilmastikUSAs on esindatud kaheksa 11-st põhilisest kliimavöötmetest. Riik laiub üle kogu mandri, ulatub Alaskas kaugele põhja ja Hawaiil Vaiksesse ookeani ning on seetõttu kliimaoludelt väga mitmekesine. Põhiosa territooriumist asub parasvöötmes ja lähistroopikas, Florida lõunaosa ulatub troopikavöötmesse. (5, lk. 178). Alaska asub lähisarktikas, mistõttu on seal asusutus ka hõredam kui mujal. Merelise kiima tõttu on läänerannikul suhteliselt jahe suvi ja pemhe talv. Niiske lähistroopiline kliima domineerib USA kaguosas. Kirdeosas on parasvööde jaheda suvega, kesk-lääne osas aga on soe suvi. (3, lk. 182-183).Ääremäestikud takistavad niiske õhu pääsu sisemaale, külm arktiline õhk tungib ida-lääne-suunaliste mäestike puudumise tõttu kaugele lõunasse, seepärast on USA siseosades talvel temperatuur ligi 10° madalam kui samadel laiustel Euroopas. (5, lk. 178).Aasta keskmine temperatuur kõigub 29°C Floridas kuni -13°C-ni Alaskas. Peale Uus-Inglismaa, Alaska ja loodeosa Vaikse ookeani ranniku on suvi soojem kui suuremas osas Euroopas. Lääneosa mägedes ja tasandikel ning Kesk-Läänes, kus Suur Järvistu võib isegi kõlmuda, on talv eriti karm. (2, lk. 62).Taimekasvu periood, s.o. periood, millal põllukultuure on võimalik kasvatada ilma tehissoojuseta, kestab näiteks suurel alal USA lõunaosast rohkem kui 200 päeva. Samuti on lääne rannikul merelise kliima tõttu taimekasvu periood pikk (4, lk 114-115).Aastane sademete hulk on kõige suurem Kordiljeeride läänenõlvul (3000-4000 mm/a), Kaskaadides kohati kuni 6000 mm/a. Rohkesti sajab ka riigi ida- ja kaguosas (1000-1200 mm/a). (5, lk. 178). Tasandikel väheneb sademete hulk suunas idast läände ning maa keskosas on sademeid 250-500 mm/a. Kirde USA-s laiuvad isegi kõrbed, kuid läänerannik on jällegi suhteliselt sademete rohke. (4, lk. 115).Kuigi ilm USA-s on sageli lausa äärmuslik - keeristormid, tsüklonid, üleujutused, äikesetormid ja põud on mõnes piirkonnas tavalised - on sealne kliima põllumajanduseks äärmiselt sobiv. (2, lk 62).3. PinnamoodUSA pindala on 9 372 607 km2, sellest on maismaa 9 166 751 km2. On loomulik et nii suure ala pinnamood varieerub suuresti. Umbes poole tema territooriumist moodustavad tasandikud ja madalad mäestikud, kõrgmäestikke on ainult...

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