Purpose and Hypotheses of the Study
The study by Steiner, Sidhu, Pop, Frenette, and Perrin (2012) had one purpose in mind. This purpose was to examine the feasibility of using yoga in urban schools to help fourth and fifth grade student with emotional and behavior disorders learn coping methods. The use of yoga training with these students was expected to be embraced by the students, teachers, and parents of the students and fit within the students’ schools schedules; along with this, it was to help improve attention levels in the classroom and behaviors in the school and home environments.
Participants of the study included 74 students with emotional and behavior disorders, the students were all from an urban elementary school’s fourth and fifth grade class (ages 8-11). The student had to be able to comprehend English well enough to do written reports and understand verbal instructions from instructors. Admittance to the program also required the students to have been identified by the school’s teaching staff or the special education director to have an emotional-behavior disorders which include any of the following disorders; anxiety, depression, attention difficulties, aggression, hyperactive, and conduct disorder (Stiner et al. 2012)
Methods and Procedures
Participants participated in two, one hour yoga classes a week for 31/2 months were the class data was recorded by the yoga instructors in terms for attendance, engagement, and behavior in every class session for every participant. The measures for this study included pre-and post-intervention assessments and questionnaires for the participants, teachers, parents, and yoga instructors. These assessments assessed the improvements of behaviors, impairments, and anxiety levels.
The participants’ assessments were administered on week before intervention and one week after completion of the intervention. The pre-intervention assessments comprised of The State- Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children, which was two 20 item self-report, larger score meant that they had higher anxiety levels. The KIDSCREEN-27 question self-report, with the lower score equaling greater impairment. Lastly the BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory Youth Version was given to students as a 60 item self-report. The post-intervention was the pre-intervention questionnaires again along with a satisfaction of the intervention questionnaire (Steiner et al. 2012).
The teachers were given assessments to complete also to help measure the students adaptive and problem behavior in the classroom. The two pre-intervention assessments were given one week before intervention. The first was the Behavior Assessment Scale for Children, Second Edition Teacher Rating Scale-Child (BASC-2) that was 139 items on a four-point scale and a higher score indicated greater impairment. The second pre-intervention assessment was The Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn, and Pelham Rating Scale, it was 10 items long based on attention and...