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Use Of Cells As Replacement Tissues And Organs

1875 words - 8 pages

Cultured cell from animal tissue can be used to replace dysfunctional and dead tissues and organs. In our daily lives, our cells are damaged and some of the damaged cells are repaired, but others are destroyed. The destroyed cells are forced into dysfunctional state where it can no longer be divide and undergo apoptosis (Sens Research Foundation, 2014). Some of the lost cells can be replaced by tissue-specific stem cell but due to aging process, the stem cell becomes less effective, losing cells progressively and they are increasingly become malfunctioning. However, this problem can be overcome by reprogram these cells from mature state into embryonic stem cell like state which are called induced pluripotent stem cells. Further understanding in how to mix both embryonic and adult stem cells with hodgepodge of sugar molecules and fibers to create an environment for differentiation into variety of cell types may help in developing replacement tissue in medical field (Bryan Christie, 2013).

In medical, the applications of animal tissue culture may help to overcome the heart failure problem. With the aging of population in America, heart failure is on the rise and almost five million people diagnosed with the disease and it continues to kill (Heart Failure and Transplant, n.d.). In future, cardiac stem cell may help to treat heart failure. A study has conducted entitled The Effect of Cardiac Stem Cells in Patients with Ischemic Cardiomyopathy (SCIPIO) shows that most of the heart failure patients can be treated using their own heart stem cell. There were no side effects from the treatment, even though the benefits only last for about two years after receiving the stem cell (The Beating Edge Team, 2012). In two doses “prime and boost” strategy tested by Raval and Schmuk, mesenchymal stem cell originates from placenta are used. The prime dose which tested with pigs alters the heart conditions to be more receptive to the second dose and inflammation is reduced which can stimulate the growth of blood vessels. Endothelial cells may play a role in organ regeneration or replacement because it can trigger growth in organ. If we can understand the signals from endothelial cell, it can be a significant advance in trigerring organ growth such as heart (Tenenbaum, 2014).

Parkinson’s disease results from the death of brain cells that responsible for producing dopamine (Carew-Jones, F., Halliday, G., Weickert, C.S., and Double, K., n.d.) a chemical that enables messages to be sent to other brain part for body control movement (Neuralstem Cell Therapy, n.d.). In future, neural stem cell transplants may help to treat Parkinson's Patients. Research conducted by Scandinavian scientists showing that cell which taken from adrenal gland of PD’s patient and being transplanted has improved patients’ condition (Backlund et al., 1985). However, it does not last long (Euro Stem Cell, 2012). Later, transplanted dopamine-producing neurons from human fetuses into animals...

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