This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Using Clostridium Botulinum As A Biological Weapon

1586 words - 6 pages

Fatal Dilemma: Using Clostridium botulinum as a Biological Weapon

Ever since the dawn of biotechnology, the world had to face a new dilemma: bioterrorism. Using biological agents such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, etc., bioterrorism attack aims to cause illness of death in people, animals, or plants as a method of warfare. Used throughout history, biological weapon serves as a pivotal role in disarming an army.
Botulism toxin, known for the most toxic substance in the biological world, has been used throughout history as a biological weapon. The bacteria Clostridium botulinum causes botulism causes botulism disease, which is a serious paralytic illness that strikes all age groups. The clinical forms of botulism include foodborne botulism, infant botulism, and wound botulism. Botulism, if left untreated, is fatal; however, even treatment with antiserum can not provide full recovery.
Botulism is rare a disease. Therefore, if anyone is diagnosed with foodborne botulism, investigation of food supply must be carried out promptly; for investigation of the botulism-diagnosed-individual's surrounding is the only method of detecting a potential bioterrorism attack.

With the continuous advancements in biomedicine follows a continuous proliferation of bioterrorism, which uses biological agents for malicious purposes (Anderson 2). More specifically, bioterrorism is a method of terrorism that intentionally releases or disseminates biological weapons that may be in natural occurring or human-modified form (Botulism- Definition). Although bioterrorism is considered as a recent dilemma, the use of biological weapon predates recorded history, during the ancient times where biological toxins were extracted from plants and animals and applied on darts and arrows to kill human enemies. Evidence of bioterrorism was also evident during the Medieval Wars, the earliest times of recorded history. The dead bodies that carried highly contagious diseases, such as smallpox and bubonic plague, were catapulted into besieged towns, where they quickly spread to civilians within the town walls (Hurlbert 4).
Usage of biological weapon reached its height during the 19th century world wars, as agents were used in all criminal, terrorist, or state-sponsored events (Anderson 20). Sprouted from the world wars, biological research programs for both offensive and defensive strategies have been developed by the United States, Britain, the former Soviet Union, Canada, and several other nations (Fong vii). However, attention has not been focused on the potential threats of biological warfare and bioterrorism until the terrorist attack on September 11th, 2001 and the anthrax crisis in Florida and New York City (Fong vii). Throughout history, biological warfare has played a significant role, as biological weapons, deliberately or inadvertently, in restricted and assisted armies over the centuries.
Advantages of biological weapons are that they are effective in spreading the...

Find Another Essay On Using Clostridium botulinum as a Biological Weapon

How Margaret Fuller and Fanny Fern Used Writing as a Weapon For Women's Rights

1505 words - 7 pages In the nineteenth century the inequality of women was more than profound throughout society. Margaret Fuller and Fanny Fern both women of the century were much farther advanced in education and opinion than most women of the time. Fuller and Fern both harbored opinions and used their writing as a weapon against the conditions that were considered the norm in society for women. Margaret and Fuller were both influential in breaking the silence of

Successfully Using Technology as a Student

973 words - 4 pages Successfully Using Technology as a Student The importance of using technology in the classroom is becoming increasingly important. As technology continues to evolve it becomes more and more imperative that it’s integrated in the classrooms as well. This allows for children who do not have access to technology at home the opportunity to learn these technologies that they will need their entire student careers. To have the advantages of

Using Correct Grammar as a Professional

781 words - 4 pages As a professional and as a college student; using correct grammar is very important. It is important because, as a professional you want to look “professional”. Correct grammar in college is important to because you want to achieve worthy grades and enhance your knowledge. The one thing that could set you apart in an interview is your use of correct grammar. The use of correct grammar makes you look professional, smart, and trustworthy. Correct

Organization as Metaphor: Using Morgan’s Metaphors as a Transitional Framework

1563 words - 6 pages changes as they are needed, and to prevent rejection and competition. As Morgan points out in his introduction, no one metaphor adequately addresses all aspects of organizational behavior or approaches to management. However, by using various metaphorical frameworks as appropriate, I can develop a well-rounded plan for transition that maintains the team’s effectiveness, boosts morale, and cements my leadership authority within the work team

On The Uses of a Liberal Education: As a Weapon In the Hands of the Restless Poor

748 words - 3 pages In the 1997 article, “On The Uses of a Liberal Education: As a Weapon In the Hands of the Restless Poor,” published by Harper’s Magazine, the social critic Earl Shorris described how political power could be achieved by a rather non-vocational educational discipline, the humanities. He emphasizes on how the knowledge of a liberal Education can be used as a form of weapon within the lives for the poor. Shorris wanted to explore on poverty in

Using a Zen Approach to Life as a Personality Theory

2979 words - 12 pages qualities without shame or anxiety. Using the tools of Zen Buddhism will help as much as traditional psychotherapy; some even say it helps more than therapy.It is not always a requirement in therapy to turn away from the troubles of life or aberrant behavior patterns, etc. Instead, the person can accept some and embrace others. As the individual accepts the darkness, the less traditional part of the self within or what is better known as "the daimonic

Importance of Your Biological Sex as a Determinant of your Gender Expression

1133 words - 5 pages “How important is your biological sex as a determinant of your gender expression? Is gender a socially constructed performance”? Throughout society, gender roles are often perceived to be typical male or female stereotypes. This can be seen through almost all television programs and often refers society expecting males to love cars, sports, drinking beer, be masculine and work in a type of trade. The same goes for women, society perceives women

Using Electroencephalography as a Method of Computer Input

1365 words - 5 pages using EEG [5] Another method of determining intended user input is through the use of Steady State Visual Evoked Potentials (SSVEPs). This method relies on different targets, such as letters on a keyboard, which are set to flicker at different rates. When the user concentrates on these targets, the computer is able to detect which target is currently being watched. One of the advantages to this method is that it has the potential for the user to

Using Tablets in Teaching English as a Second Language

1256 words - 6 pages components in teaching, (3) ease of reading and understanding of the contents of the ebook, and (4) integration of viewing skills aside from listening, speaking, reading, and writing. In addition, Yang (2012) stated that La Salle Greenhills in Metro Manila has advocated in using tablets in teaching-learning and named tablets as the future of education. Yang discussed that the tablet as a personal learning device began as a replacement for textbooks but

Scalable Video Transcoding as a Service [VTaaS] using Cloud Hadoop

1905 words - 8 pages transcoding becomes computationally intensive and time consuming process. This proposed cloud system has four of the video compression standards such as Low Quality Encoding , Standard Quality Encoding , High Quality Encoding and High Definition. These standards achieve better compression performance with Quality. In general compression process takes more time. Map Reduce is used for managing a work in a considerable short period of time. This in turn

Using Drama in English as a Second Language Classes

666 words - 3 pages Using drama in ESL class or play provides a lot of benefits to the students. Drama not only can help students in improving their academic performance but it also benefits students’ development in five areas holistically which are physical development, emotional development, intellectual development, social development and moral development. Here, I will focus on how to develop children language as well as their aesthetic values using the

Similar Essays

Usage Of Plague As A Biological Weapon

1595 words - 6 pages trials in treating plague on humans, and the requirement of a specific number of human tests. (Perry, 1997) There currently are several antibiotics used to treat pneumonic plague, however, new strains of the bacteria have been discovered to be resistant against all antibiotics. This further tips the balance in favor for bioterrorists to take full advantage of the plague as a weapon. Several examples of using this bacterium in biological warfare can

Guilt As A Weapon In Medea

1295 words - 5 pages Often times, people use guilt as a weapon to get what they most desire. The characters in the dramatic play, Medea, use guilt as a means by which to attain little, as well as big, wants and desires.Perhaps the most minor case of guilt as a weapon, happens in the very first pages of the reading. Medea's nurse, wishing to find out gossip uses her pitiful cry to gain the attention of Jason's attendant. "… Don't hide anything from your fellow

Insanity As A Weapon In Hamlet By William Shakespeare

805 words - 4 pages “Revenge his foul and most unnatural murder” (I.iv.31); the words that changed Hamlet tremendously. As Hamlet meets the ghost of his dead father; he finds out that Claudius, his father’s brother, poisoned him. Hamlet then puts on an act of insanity. No one really knows why he has gone so mad. Hamlet uses insanity as a weapon to avenge his father’s death. Converting back to sanity, Hamlet’s thoughts and actions lets us know how and what he is

How Successful Was The Attempt By Opec To Use Oil As A Political Weapon?

2288 words - 9 pages weapon, which before had decidedly failed during the Suez Crisis and the Six-Day War. The changing conditions coincided with the political developments between Israel and Egypt.The political oil weapon is defined in this essay as the manipulation of oil price and production in order to wield power over the international system. For many years before, the oil weapon had been thought of as a way to achieve Arab objectives regarding Israel and with