Vaccines & Their Functions Essay

1439 words - 6 pages

Vaccines & their FunctionsVaccines & their FunctionsIntroductionVaccines are made from either all or portions of the microorganism against which the vaccine protects. These portions of the microorganisms are called antigens and, in most cases, are proteins, glycoproteins, or polysaccharides (Stratton, 2004). There are three traditional types of vaccines. Inactivated vaccines are made from organisms that have been killed in such a way that they still retain most of their original structure. Examples are the inactivated polio vaccine and the influenza vaccine. Live-attenuated vaccines are made of live organisms that have been weakened so that they replicate poorly in the human host and therefore do not cause disease. Examples are measles, rubella, and chickenpox vaccines. Subunit vaccines are made from only some portions of the organism. These often contain toxins that have been altered so that they are no longer dangerous, and are called toxoids, as, for example, the tetanus and the diphtheria vaccines (Levine, 2004). Other subunit vaccines contain recombinant protein antigens, as, for example, the hepatitis B vaccine. A particular class of subunit vaccines is represented by conjugate vaccines, which consist of bacterial polysaccharides linked to protein carriers. An example is the Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine.DiscussionSeveral types of vaccines are still in the experimental stages and will be part of a new generation of vaccines in the future. These include DNA vaccines , which use the gene encoding a particular protein from an organism, and recombinant vector vaccines , which use an attenuated virus or bacterium to introduce a gene from another microorganism into the host, thus eliciting an immune response against the antigen encoded by that gene. A third type of experimental vaccine is one that does not target microorganisms, but rather is designed to aid in the elimination of cancer cells (Offit, 2003). This type of vaccine, termed dendritic cell vaccine , relies on the host's own dendritic cells, a category of white blood cells responsible for the activation of T lymphocytes, to recognize cancer cells and therefore contribute to the mechanisms necessary for their elimination.According to Levine (2004), vaccine efficacy is usually improved through the use of adjuvants. These include natural or synthetic compounds used in vaccine formulations that aid in enhancing the immune response to vaccines. Although there are hundreds of compounds being evaluated as vaccine adjuvants, the alum (aluminum hydroxide) adjuvant, first described in 1926, remains the only one used in human vaccines licensed in the United States. Vaccine efficacy is also improved by giving recurrent doses of a vaccine. This practice, called boosting, is done to allow the immune system to remember previous vaccinations by exposing it to the vaccine more than once, and therefore to produce stronger memory immune responses that are effective for an extended period...

Find Another Essay On Vaccines & their Functions

Pros and Cons of Animal Testing

995 words - 4 pages Assignment #5: Pro Animal Testing Animal testing has become a wide contribution in medical field in order to find new treatment, developing new medicines and improving the existing ones as well as testing the safety and effectiveness of new medicines. Some medicines development is depending on animal research, for instances, vaccines and insulin for diabetes and kidney transplants. However, there are many diseases that their cures are still

The Necessities of Animal Experimentation Essay

1315 words - 5 pages animal experimenting is necessary. In addition, medical research would be in great jeopardy if were animals were not permitted to be experimented on. Medical industries have already come so far in treating multiple ailments due to the tests performed on animals. Alas, it is safe to say that for the continued thriving of our society, forbidding animal experimentation would be detrimental. What would human beings do without vaccines

Swine Flu Research Paper

2268 words - 9 pages . The nucleoprotein (RNA) is composed of protein and nucleic acid and is found in the cytoplasm. The capsid includes proteins that enable a virus to enter a host cell (trick the host’s surface with the proteins). Hemagglutinin and neuraminidase are the surface proteins. The hemagglutinin is the protein that functions in attachment of virus to the host cell. Neuraminidase facilitates the release of newly produced virus particles from the host cell

The Use of Animals in Medical Research

993 words - 4 pages Since the ancient Greeks, experimental animals have been very important to our understanding of the biological processes that makes life possible. In a world growing more complex daily, laboratory animals are needed more than ever to help in the discovery of vaccines and cures for the plagues of today and those to come, not to mention in both easing the burden of chronic diseases and ensuring humans a safe food supply. Using animals in

Controversy and Importance of Animal Testing

2333 words - 10 pages Almost every person has received a vaccine in their life. Vaccines intend to protect people from serious diseases that can affect them for the rest of their lives. In order to prevent diseases from spreading, all states require proof of immunization against diseases to be able to attend school. These vaccines were not just there, someone was required to develop them. To do so, these scientists had to run tests and experiments on lab animals

A World of $6,000,000 Men & Women

846 words - 4 pages attract viewers. In today’s society, biomedical replacements are everyday occurrences. Hearts, lungs, arms, all are able to be replaced with mechanical versions, for improved functions, as well as, to replace lost organs and limbs. The uses of biomedical parts are astronomical. With biological enhanced humans, diseases like cancer could be eliminated, or car accident victims saved from a crushing death. However, can this go as far as an army of

Science Needs Animal Testing

2122 words - 9 pages , Meningitis, and HPV. Furthermore, animals do benefit from animal testing just as much as humans do. Countless pets, livestock and animals’ lives have been improving through the discovery of rabies, anthrax, feline leukemia, and canine parvovirus vaccines. The benefits that animal studies bring towards their species have been admitted by the medical world, which is also being confirmed by the book “Science, Medicines, and Animals (1991)”: Vaccines

Influenza Vaccination Project

3447 words - 14 pages enforce the importance of vaccination and the impression about benefits of vaccination in people's mind.We will disseminate the printed materials, which are about the information of different kinds of vaccines, such as the functions of them, the times and the locations to take them, and so on, We will update the information in the materials all the time. Also we are going to invite the professionals, who are working in the hospital, or vaccine

Vibrio cholerae, the Human Immune System, and Vaccines

1591 words - 6 pages spontaneously, given that certain patient is able to survive. In this case with V. cholerae, the sloughing cells continue their job until all the bacteria have been attached to mucosal cells, expelled into the lumen, and washed out of the body. (Salyers A., Abigail, 9) Another defense MALT puts on is the secretory immunoglobulin (sIgA) antibody produced by mucus that helps trap bacteria (Salyers, A., Abigail, 9). SIgA has multiple functions such as

Human Experimentation

964 words - 4 pages their slaves, often without informing them of the dangers involved. Edward Jenner who was a pioneer in inoculation against smallpox and has been called the “Father of Immunology”, tested smallpox vaccines on neighboring children and even his own son. In his most famous experiment he injected an eight year old boy with pus scraped from the blisters of a milkmaid infected with cowpox and then later on two different occasions, to test if the boy had

Are Viruses Alive

664 words - 3 pages provirus. Then, the provirus DNA may eventually switch to the lytic cycle and destroy the host. It is often argued whether viruses are living or not. Those who don’t believe that viruses are living generally base their opinion off of the fact that they do not follow the basic definition of “life”. They do not carry out life-sustaining functions on their own like normal organisms. On the other side of the argument, some believe that viruses are

Similar Essays

The Vaccines For Children Essay

2482 words - 10 pages Practices (ACIP) (Richard Kent Zimmerman, 2001). Overview of the program The Vaccines for Children (VFC) Program helps providing the appropriate vaccines to children whose parents or caregiver may not necessarily be able to afford or maintain appropriate health care thus having the children miss much needed vaccines. This program helps to ensure that all children, regardless of ability to pay have an improved chance of getting their recommended

Inoculation To Disability And Death Essay

2531 words - 10 pages : “Freedom over one’s physical person is the most basic freedom of all, and people in a free society should be sovereign over their own bodies. When we give government the power to make medical decisions for us, we in essence accept that the state owns our bodies. The possibility that the federal government could order vaccines is real. Provisions buried in the 500-page homeland security bill give federal health bureaucrats virtually unchecked power

Edible Vaccines Essay

2072 words - 8 pages the problems that bar vaccines from reaching all too many children in developing nations (Landrige 2000). Then Arntzen heard of a world health organization call for an inexpensive, oral vaccine that needed no refrigeration. He then visited Bangkok, where he saw a mother soothe a crying baby with a banana and he thought that perhaps food could be genetically engineered to produce vaccines in their edible parts, which could then be eaten when

Antiviral Drugs Essay

1676 words - 7 pages mutation enables a virus to overcome some obstacle to reproduction (such as a drug), that strain will thrive in the face of the obstacle. To keep the resistance at bay until effective vaccines are found, pharmaceutical companies will have to develop more drugs. When mutants resistant to a particular drug arise, reading their genetic text can indicate where the mutation lies in the virus and suggest how that mutation might alter the interaction