A research is valid to the world when a number of key concepts are used in the research design. The document must be organized and planned according to the criteria used in the field. Some important concepts to know include: validity, variable, operationalization, sample, measurement, measurement error, causation, plausible rival explanations, hypothesis, reliability, and unit of analysis. The researcher must learn how to apply each key concept in an effort to make the research study valuable. These concepts will be reviewed individually to be able to understand how to apply them when writing a research paper.
It is significant to have validity in research. Validity is the best approximation of the truth of a given proposition, inference, or conclusion. It refers to the many conclusions reached about the quality of the different parts of the research methodology. It provides concrete data about the cause and effect construct. There are four main types of validity: conclusion, internal, construct, and external. External validity determines if you can generalize the causal relationship of the study to other persons, places, or times. The researcher can make some claims that the research findings have implications for other groups and individuals in other settings at other times. Construct validity revises if you operationalized well the ideas of cause and effect when there is a causal relationship in the study. Internal validity is use to determine if the relationship is causal when you can make a claim that the program or treatment in the study caused the outcomes of the study. Conclusion validity is use to determine if there is a relationship between the cause and effect. All four types of validity are important in research studies.
In order to conduct a research study and answer questions, the variables in the study must include what things we are measuring, collecting data, or forming groups. The age, country, cause, attributes, and gender are some examples of variables in a study. Some variables can be defined as independent or dependent. An independent variable is one use to form or make groups. It is like saying Generations Gaps and the Baby Boomers, Generation X, Generation Y, and Generation Z are the levels of the dependent variable. The dependent variable is the one that you expect to change, or vary, as a result of the independent variable. The outcome will be measured to see what effect(s) the independent variable had on the dependent variable. Variables must be defined so they can be measured by a research instrument like a survey, observation, interview, content analysis, etc.
Operationalization is part of the empirical research process. It is the process of defining an ambiguous concept so as to make the theoretical concept clearly distinguishable or measurable, and to understand it in terms of empirical observations. It is the process of specifying the extension of a concept by describing what is and is not a...