In research paradigm, validity and reliability are the most basic characteristic issues used in qualitative and quantitative analysis. Validity as a psychometric standard is embedded in a positivist approach, which is relevant in reflecting on the qualitative point of view ascribed to the establishment of the truth. In view of this, definition of positivism ascribe to a theory systematic to validity. Additionally, other empirical conceptions culminating from resided validity include truth, deduction, universal laws, evidence, reason, and actuality among others.
For any qualitative research conducted, validity as a concept is a determinant that measures the truth concerning the investigation. Validity is measured by researchers by asking questions and answers are retrieved from other people’s research work (Joppe, 2000, p. 1). Other researchers define validity in quantitative research as construct validity. Construct implies initial concept, hypothesis, notion or question determining data gathered and method of data collection. However, quantitative practitioners affirm the cause or effect interplay between data and construct for validation of investigation by applying test procedures or processes (Golafshani, 2003, p. 599). As a result, with regard to validity, researchers conclude that, it is whether measurements of the mean are accurate or they are measuring the intended features. Accuracy of the mean helps in relating the cause-and-effect relationship present in internal validity.
The above definition is associated with quantitative research methodology. It summarizes that validity to be the extent in which instruments measure the exact thing it purports to measure. An example of validity in research is when screening of applicants for job positions, tests are applied, and scores relate directly future performance of the job by employees. This can be in relation to the construction industry and project managers use this approach to test their performance (Golafshani, 2003, p. 610). This helps managers and leaders improve on the weak areas and gain competitive advantage in the industry. High performance of projects in management leads to execution of many research proposals that will positively affect the industry and increase productivity. This makes it easier for investigations to be performed since accurate information is reached and obtained in a short period while utilizing theories relating to the field of study. Validity is classified into different categories like content, face, construct, concurrent, factorial and criterion-related validity.
Construct validity is the degree to which measurement of instruments to aspects like trait and theoretical framework construct are under measurement. In theory, construct validity is an ongoing process that enables individuals predict test scores in diversified situations and settings. This as an assessment of well translated ideas and theories into measures and...