What is the Mangrove Ecosystem?
Mangroves are found in tropical and sub-tropical areas which located at intertidal areas and estuary mouths between land and sea. There are consists a group of plant growing in shallow and muddy salt water or brackish waters. The specific regions where the plants occur are called “mangrove ecosystem”. Mangroves provide critical habitat for a diverse marine and terrestrial flora and fauna. The continuous interruption of physiological and morphological stresses, salinity effect, aeration and onslaught of wave action in long term period are causes of the ecosystem highly fragile (source?).
Mangrove forests have contributed a lot of benefits to mankind especially in the economic sectors and environmental. The production of poles, charcoal and fuel wood can be obtained from mangrove forest and it also support various functions such as coastline protection, trapping the sediments and recycling of nutrients, supporting the fishes and wildlife populations, source of food (Source?). Therefore, effective strategies are needed to overcome the number of decreasing on the mangrove forest in Malaysia and to avoid extinction of organisms at mangrove areas. Considering the statement above, the objectives of this term paper are as follows:
1. To study the functions of Mangrove ecosystem on it surrounding environment.
2. To determine the effectiveness strategies have implemented by government to restore the mangrove ecosystem.
What is the importance of Mangrove forests?
Economic benefits of mangrove forests/ ecosystems
Mangrove forests are being the economic suppliers to provide forestry products such as firewood, charcoal, timber, honey and etc. The mangrove wood with high content of tannin is used as timber for it durability (durability for constructing what?) (source?). The mangrove leaves called Nypa which used to thatch roofs, mats and baskets. They also highly supply the fishery products are fish, prawn, crab and mollusk so on. Moreover, mangrove also has used in indigenous medication. For example, barks of Rhizophora species have astringent, anti-diarrhoea and antemetic activities (source?). In addition, mangrove forests are the best quality honey produced from Aegialitis rotundifolia and Aegialitis rotundifolia.
Protect Coastline communities and reduce the risk of natural disaster (Tsunami)
Mangrove forests are playing an important role as guardians along tropical coastlines to protect communities from the erosive wind and coastal erosion. Mangrove trees have unique characteristics such as tough root systems, special bark and leaf structures. By the exposed root systems can create a barrier to slow down the water movement from sea to land and trapping sediments, as a consequence it reduced erosion along coastal areas. Besides that, it is also important for the protection from fury of Tsunami. Mangroves are reducing the speed of the Tsunami’s wave and help to reduce the rate of human...