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Variable Production Of Carbon Dioxide And Ethanol By The Yeast Saccharomyces In Fermentation Due To Temperature Changes

2361 words - 9 pages

AbstractUnder anaerobic conditions, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used in determining how much carbon dioxide was produced at several temperature points in Celsius. From these reactions, it is assumed that temperature increase will have an effect on higher production rates of carbon dioxide. In order to achieve these values, several materials were used in the experiment. Two 500 mL flasks were used, one contain 250 mL of sucrose and the other 250 mL of water. The two flasks were calibrated to an assigned stable temperature in water jackets, and with the help of two ring stands, the two graduated cylinders were filled with water and submerge in water bowls. After the set up was complete, the flask containing sucrose received the living yeast cells (Saccharomyces), and both flasks were stopped with stoppers and hoses. Afterwards the hoses from each flask were put into their respective graduated cylinder to measure how much carbon dioxide was produced by seeing how much water was pushed out from each graduated cylinder over the duration of one hour. Consequently, when we evaluated the production of carbon dioxide over a series of temperature changes, we saw an increase of production of carbon dioxide confirming our hypothesis except at 60 C. From the data that was achieved, we concluded that as temperature increased over a set period of time, the production of carbon dioxide increased due to the pyruvates being converted to ethanol at a higher rate with the aid of the pool of NAD+ except at 60 C due to cell membrane breaking down to the increasing temperature .IntroductionWhen glucose is broken down by the process of glycolysis, two pyruvates are the products of this catabolic pathway and two ATP are produced with the help of the enzymes of phosphoglycerokinase and pyruvate kinase in the cytosol. In addition, 2 NADH are produced in the cytosol when the enzyme triose phosphate dehydrogenase catalyzes glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate during glycolysis. The pyruvates of this reaction can take one of two routes before being broken down further: 1) with the aid of oxygen, the pyruvates are converted to acetyl Coenzyme A where it enters the mitochondria of the cell and proceed into the Krebs Cycle and to the electron transport chain where four more NADH and 34 -36 more ATP can be produced to make oxygen and energy for the cell. This process is known as the aerobic respiration (Campbell et. al., 2002).2) if no oxygen is present, the pyruvates enter a process known as fermentation. In this process, the pyruvates do not enter the mitochondria and stay in the cytosol where they are broken down to organic molecules. As a result, only a net of 2 ATP from glycolysis is produced in this process with the aid of the pool of NAD+ present in the cytosol. Two types of fermentation that we see in our daily lives are lactic acid fermentation and alcohol fermentation. The difference between these two fermentations is that lactic acid is produced in the muscles during...

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