Ultrasonic sound- The PING))) ultrasonic sensors operate using ultrasonic sound. The sensor emits an ultrasonic chip, which is reflected off of and object. The sensor times how long it takes for the sensor to emit the chirp, and have it received off the object as an echo. Using the equation of the speed of sound in air, the sensor monitors distance. The sensor operates using a 40kHz chirp. This frequency falls in the sound range commonly used by animals for communication. Frequencies that are much higher, for example 1-20 mHz are used more commonly for medical imaging.
PCB- This first ever PCBs started out of materials such as layered cardboard and masonite. During the 1950's and 60's, the concept of using different resins and mixing them with various materials was beginning to be introduced, however, all boards were still one-sided. The government’s development of new equipment in both the weapons and communication fields had a large effect on the progress and advancement of the board. The early boards also held components and leads using small nickel plates, soldered to the board. Eventually both sides of the boards were able to electronically connected by processes that were developed that plate copper onto the walls of the drilled holes. Also, brass was the metal used in the early boards, but was later replaced by copper due to its ability to carry an electric current more efficiently and more cost effectively that brass.
Relay switch- Electrical relay switch are operated using electrical currents flowing through a coil, creating a magnetic field which attracts a level. The position of the level is based on whether or not the electric current is on or not. And because the current is able to be turned on and off, you get two positions for the switch. These are known as double throw switches. Also, relays have the capability to allow one circuit to switch a second which may or may not be separate from the first. The link between the two circuits is magnetic and mechanical, not electric. Many relay switches are designed specifically for PCB mounting.
Ultraviolet light- Ultraviolet radiation is in the invisible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Ultraviolet or UV light consists of three classifications. UV-A, is the longest wavelength and least powerful, also known as black light. UV-B, is an intermediate wavelength. And UV-C, the shortest wavelength, is the most powerful. No UV-C rays from the sun penetrate the atmosphere and reach the earth. UV-C germicidal wavelength is roughly 254 nm, which produces almost pure UV-C radiation with little visible light.
Volatile Organic Compounds- Air containing VOC or Volatile Organic Compounds can and are very hazardous to our health. VOCs are any organic chemical (or carbon containing chemical) that has been vaporized. Sources of VOCs include but not limited to household products such as paint strippers, paint, solvents, aerosol sprays, and many adhesives. When vaporized, these chemicals can have...