Varying Rates Of Hydrolysis Of The Different Isomers Of Carbon, Hydrogen And Bromobutane.

978 words - 4 pages

Chemistry courseworkAim:To investigate and discover the varying rates of hydrolysis of the different isomers of Carbon, Hydrogen and Bromobutane.Scientific Research:The collision theory of bimolecular reactions in the gas phase was developed from the kinetic theory of gases. The theory implies that in a reaction between two gaseous substances A and B, a molecule of A must collide with a molecule of B before a reaction can occur. It has been shown that the collision frequency is proportional to the product. If every collision results in reaction, the rate of reaction will therefore equal the collision frequency. The rate of reaction is much less than the rate of collision.The collision theory was developed for bimolecular reactions in the gas phase, but it has been found to apply to reactions in solution. Although solvent molecules prevent molecules of reactant coming together as frequently as they would in the gas phase, once they have come together, reactant molecules are less able to escape, and will collide repeatedly. These collisions may result in a reaction.From this theory comes another known as the transition state theory, which is concerned with the detail during the course of a collision. It follows the energy and orientation of the colliding reactant molecules and then seeks an explanation as to why such a small portion of collisions results in reaction.Kinetic energy is converted into potential energy as reacting molecules collide, as the reactant molecules move along the reaction coordinate towards the products, the potential energy passes through a peak. This peak is called the activated complex and exists in a transition state.The hydrolysis of halogenoalkanes are Sn reactions, nucleophilic substitution reactions. In the hydrolysis of primary (and some secondary) halogenoalkanes, two species RX and OH¯, are involved in the formation of the transition state: this step is bimolecular. The reaction is described as an Sn2 reaction. In the hydrolysis of tertiary (and some secondary) halogenoalkanes, only one species is required for the formation of the transition state: the rate-determining step is unimolecular. This is known as an Sn1 reaction.H+ ions = acid hydrolysis e.g. 2M HCl.OH¯ ions = alkaline hydrolysis e.g. 2M NaOH.Hydrolysis of primary halogenoalkanes:Mechanism:HO¯ approaches H- C - X to form H- O C XThe making of a new bond eases the breaking of the old bond, a transition state is consequently formed.Hydrolysis of tertiary halogenoalkanes:Mechanism:R CX R C + X¯Followed byR C + H O R COH + H (aq)Preliminary work:As the primary and tertiary isomers lie on the boundaries to be investigated, one of these will be sure to react first therefore, the isomers to be investigated are the tertiary and primary structures as the second form falls in the middle of the sequence and is therefore irrelevant at establishing a rate trend. Whatever is discovered through experimentation upon the two chosen will infer that the...

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