Vegetable and fermented vegetable juices containing germinated seeds and sprouts of lentil and cowpea

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Among vegetable juices, coded No:5 was found to be the most preferable vegetable juice (p<0.05). The acceptable level of added germinated seed and sprouts to No:5 was determined by panelists as 1.5% for each of germinated seed and sprouts of lentils and cowpeas (p<0.05).
3.2. Proximate analyses and content of vitamin C, TP, TF, n-FP and AC
The values of water-soluble dry matter, total sugar, protein, vitamin C, TP, TF, n-FP and AC of VJ and FVJ were shown in Table 1. Approximately, TF and n-FP consisted of 18.6 % and 81.4% of the TP in VJ and 16.3% and 82.7% of the TP in FVJ, respectively. According to Turkish Codex Standard serving size of vegetable juice is 250 mL and recommended daily reference amount of vitamin C is 80 mg. Correspondingly, consumption of one serving of VJ and FVJ could supply daily vitamin C requirement as 15.4% and 5.66%, respectively.
Literature survey (Science Direct and Web of Science database) showed that data regarding health effects of vegetable juices are intensified especially their polyphenol contents and antioxidant activities. The result of the study investigating total phenol contents and antioxidant activities of 23 commercially available vegetable juices showed that total phenol contents were in between 514 to 3025 µg Ferulic acid equivalent/mL (Wootton-Beard, Moran & Ryan, 2011). One serving (250 mL) of VJ and FVJ produced in this study, could provide approximately 22 mg and 20 mg TF, and 118 mg and 120 mg TP, respectively. Therefore contribution of VJ and FVJ to dietary polyphenols cannot be ignored since, 250 mL is easily consumable.
3.2.3. Antioxidant activity, in vitro antidiabetic, bile acid binding, ACE inhibitory and hemagglutinating activities
The data of antioxidant activity, in vitro anti-diabetic activity and in vitro bile acid binding capacity of VJ and FVJ were represented in Table 2. There was no significant difference between the antioxidant activities of VJ and FVJ determined with both methods (p>0.05). However, ORAC values were found to be higher than DPPH values of both vegetable juices. This difference can be due to the different antioxidant mechanisms of ORAC and DPPH methods. ORAC is based on hydrogen atom transfer, while DPPH is based on electron transfer mechanism. Also, the slow reaction rate in between the DPPH radical and various antioxidant compounds was reported as one of the disadvantages of DPPH method. For example DPPH radical can react with ascorbic acid in 1.15 min while can react with rutin in 103 min. Contrary to, the reaction between ORAC and many antioxidants is found to be very fast. For this reason, to measure antioxidant activity using one radical is not recommended if the objective is to determine the overall antioxidant activity of the material (Ardağ, 2008).
There were no significant differences between the α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of the VJ and FVJ. However, α-amylase inhibitory effect of the VJ was found to be higher than that of FVJ...

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