Vehicular Flow Analysis Using Trace Element Biomonitoring Of Tree Barks In Streets And Avenues Of São Paulo City

677 words - 3 pages

The largest concentration of elements are Ca , S, Mg, Fe These elements are present in high amounts in the crust , and is mainly found in PM10 . However, these elements can also be considered as markers of traffic related to ressuspension dust of the roads. Schauer et al (2006) reported the enrichment of the road dust with elements derived for wear parts such as Fe and exhaust emission such as S, Ca , Mg.
Faggi et al (2011) found element mean concentration in the same order of magnitude in areas with heavy traffic streets and avenues.
The fuel composition differs in each country and studies shown that the Brazilian fuel emission diesel used in Brazil is mainly by Ca, Mg, Fe and Al (Loyola et al , 2009) compound. The knowledge of the average concentration of elements Ca, Mg, Fe suggests that despite a small fleet of diesel vehicles they are potential emission sources.
The mean concentration of elements in the same street have shown a significant difference (p < 0.05) indicating ...view middle of the document...

Quadrants 3, 7, 10, 11 have higher concentrations of Zn used as a lubricant additive derived from wear and vehicle parts, especially the brakes. These areas have the common characteristic of constant heavy traffic, heavy vehicles and large congestion on their streets. Thus it can be stated that this high concentration of Zn is related to wear parts.
According to PCA results we found 5 groups: group 1 (Al, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn), group 2 (Ca, Sr), group 3 (Cl, Na), group 4 (K, P) and group 5 (Mg, S).
Group 1 explains 27.107 of the variance. The vehicular traffic is the main emission source of these element which are primarily related to ressuspension of dust ( Al , Fe , Cu ) and wear of vehicle parts ( Cu and Zn ) . Group 5 is explained by 9.83% of the variance and its source is connected by vehicular exhaust emissions fuel combustion , use of additives and lubricating oil) . Groups 2, 3, and 4 are explained by similar biogeochemical characteristics between elements.
The analysis of the different classifications of traffic streets showed that there is a hierarchy of elements emission. The street considered expressed have higher emissions and local minor emission.
The dispersion maps pollutant concentrations allows the identification of regions of the city with the highest traffic volume and analysis of each elements allows the separation of the most affected by heavy vehicles and light vehicles areas .
The analysis of the distribution maps of concentration allows you to individually test each element. The highest concentrations of Al are found in areas with higher density of heavy vehicles nearby express streets.
The Cu and Zn have high concentrations mainly in expressway which is predominantly used by trucks . The distribution of the concentration of Fe is located in areas that have a high flux density vehicular both lightweight as well as heavier vehicles Mn.
The dispersion of the S element is related to bus lanes indicating that the main source of vehicular emission of sulfur element is the bus fleet and fuel.
4.Conclusion
The dispersion of air pollution and the type of traffic flow could be identifying with the biomonitoring techniques. These techniques allow creating a micro scale distribution of pollutants giving us a more accurate data to be used in epidemiological studies

Find Another Essay On Vehicular flow analysis using trace element biomonitoring of tree barks in streets and avenues of São Paulo city

Trace Macbeth's journey throughout the play using the themes of ambition, equivoation and free will versus destiny

840 words - 3 pages The Shakespearean tragedy of "Macbeth" follows the journey of a man who was driven from his inner flaws and desires to his own destruction. Throughout this play there are many themes and ideals which are explored and exposed to the audience. The striking imagery established by Shakespeare's language in conjunction with the sequence of tragic events, has created a very chilling tale exploring various themes and their consequences. The first theme

Power And Control In Maggie: A Girl Of The Streets

1324 words - 5 pages The world of Stephen Crane&#8217;s novel, Maggie: A Girl of the Streets, is a dark, violent place. People curse one another openly and instigate fights over petty issues. The intense poverty of the populace leads to a feeling of general despair and creates a lack of self-confidence in each individual. People want to feel that they mean something. They want to know that their life does not go unnoticed. They desire power over others

Analysis of "A Poison Tree"

1983 words - 8 pages "soft deceitful wiles." Here the speaker is talking about how his everyday interactions helped; overtime, to foster the tree of his anger. By using those words, one can clearly imagine the speaker having to ignore what he is feeling and offer smiles and meaningless platitudes to his enemy in public. At this juncture, the process has begun, the seed has taken root and the tree begins its growth. The third stanza deals with the maturation

The Life and Works of Paulo Coelho

1852 words - 7 pages and to expand their horizons. Also, I would like to remark that Paulo Coelho is one of the most popular authors of all the time. All the basic features of glorifying him all over the world – is rich imagination that is well expressed in a paper using simple language and linearity in a clear style, so that many readers start reading could go further comprehending the meaning. His thoughts, which set out in the paper really affect people. It does not

Computational Flow and Shock Analysis of De Laval Nozzle

1368 words - 5 pages . Index Term - De Laval Nozzle, Shock Analysis, CFD, Fluent. I. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Nozzle Nozzle is a mechanical device designed to control the direction or characteristics of a fluid flow. It is a specially shaped tube through which hot gases flow. Nozzles are frequently used to control the rate of flow, speed, direction, mass, shape, and/or the pressure of the stream that emerges from them. Nozzles come in a variety of shapes and sizes depending

Design and Flow Analysis of Electromagnetic Plasma Arc Propulsion System

1583 words - 7 pages propellant is same. so here more pressure occur in inlet section and low pressure occur in nozzle section. The analysis of velocity contour of the electromagnetic plasma arc propulsion system as shown in figure 8. Here change an electromagnetic field compared to previous analysis. We can identified from figure the velocity value is more in exit nozzle when compared to the inlet section. So turbulence flow occur in exit of the quartz tube .Here very

An analysis of Procter & Gamble equity, cash flow, and notes

1982 words - 8 pages , prestige fragrances and skin care. Pet Nutrition and care products include pet health nutrition products.P&G's goal is to deliver continue sales growth in order to exceed its financial goals. With a strong and consistent performance they were able to meet their goals in the fiscal year 2004: Volume was up 17%, sales increase by 19% to $51.4 billion and earnings were up 25% with a free cash flow of $7.3 billion. To analyze where this increase come

Ratio Analysis and Statement of Cash Flow: Wendy's vs. McDonald's

1502 words - 6 pages activities was $1,633,500,000.McDonald's major competitor, Wendy's International Inc. generated $130,217,000 from investing, according to the annual data collected through January 2005. This number is derived from $29,650,000 in direct investments and $125,301,000 in financing activities with cash flow from operations during the same time period, (www.finance.yahoo.com).The influencing factors that have the most impact upon each of these fast-food

Equity, Cash Flow, and Notes Analysis Paper of Samsung Electronics

1444 words - 6 pages Statement of Cash Flow reports 3,446,700 in Cash and Cash Equivalents at the end of the year 2003. The first section of the Statement of Cash Flows reports the cash from operating activities. The first line item is the organization's net income (4,980,992) as reported on the organization's income statement. Next, the following items are added to the net income in order to reconcile net income to the net cash provided by operating activities

City of Kelsey Process Identification and Analysis

1024 words - 4 pages continued success and a more diversified approach, Kelsey needs to seek a new evaluation of its future potential and the addition of another department under the City Manager. It has been recommended that an additional department be added that would work in conjunction with the Planning Commission and Regional Development departments. Under the management of the City Manager of Kelsey, a new Visitors Authority department is under consideration in

Streets, Skyscrapers, and Slums: The City in Social, Cultural, and Historical Context

4812 words - 19 pages Streets, Skyscrapers, and Slums: The City in Social, Cultural, and Historical ContextWord Count: 3273 (excl. indented quotes)Critically analyse the view that the contemporary city is a space of barely contained chaos, conflict, and violence through cultural representations of the city including film, television, and music.I aim to critically analyze specific instances of Western culture, with the intention of developing a sound understanding of

Similar Essays

Analysis Of Writers Paulo Frei

1095 words - 4 pages Perspectives in the Arts      The stories behind a piece of art are infinite. The reasons the artist produced the piece is only one explanation behind the work. Even so, who is to know the specific thoughts the artist was thinking at the time? As each art critic may conclude his own analysis of an artwork, who is right and who is wrong? Just as students challenge the information that is supposedly “deposited” in them

Peace On The Streets: Analysis Of Altruism And Egoism In Ayn Rand's The Fountainhead

1502 words - 6 pages development. There are four characters in particular who distinctly exhibit the attributes of altruistic and egoistic individuals: Catherine Halsey, Peter Keating, and Ellsworth Toohey possess altruistic qualities; whereas, Howard Roark is explicitly egoistic. By definition, altruism is "the principle or practice of unselfish concern for or devotion to the welfare of others". Through vigorous analysis, however, I have established it to be a

Compare And Contrast How Paris And São Paulo Have Changed Over Time

1583 words - 6 pages streets. The renaissance was similar to the roman period and was mostly imitated. The most important period was the classical; during the 1600's the French classical style developed which made Paris famous for its architecture. São Paulo, having not gone through so many changes in architecture does not posses as many classical and great pieces of architecture however some historic monuments were built such as the Pátio de Col&eacute

Our Journey Through The City Streets Of Paris At Night

1548 words - 7 pages Paris is a beautiful city during the day, but at night, it changes. The first thing that is seen are all the lights from the shops, buildings and streetlights. These lights brighten up Paris and give it a different but just as beautiful perspective at night. The Eiffel Tower, one of the top attractions in Paris that tourists come to see can be described as an iron, lace work of art, and the most recognized structure in the world, and at night