Vehicular Networks Essay

617 words - 3 pages

There is a lot of potential for assisting drivers and improving roads traffic safety using vehicular networks (VANETs). VANETs are ad-hoc networks, where vehicles and roadside station wirelessly interconnect. They are characterized by the high mobility of the nodes and their intermittent links. As a result, it is challenging to design a network that meets applications requirements efficiently and reliably. This paper reviews how packet forwarding, a fundamental aspect of packet switched networks, is accomplished in VANETs using the Velocity-Heading Routing Protocol (VHRP). VHRP is a multi-hop routing protocol, it uses intermediate vehicles to relay packets from source to destination [2]. Also, it is adopts a clustering technique and vehicles movement prediction to provide stable communication links.

As an ad-hoc network, the flat structure of VANETs is impractical and does not scale well. A hierarchical architecture is essential for achieving a basic ...view middle of the document...

One of the main benefits of clustering is the construction of a virtual backbone that makes the network appear stable, in spite of the frequent changes in the network's topology.

VHRP adopts clustering and segments the network according to the velocity vectors of the vehicles.The velocity vector of a vehicle indicates its velocity and movement direction [4]. Precisely, the network is divided into four groups, where vehicles in a group travel along one of the cardinal coordinates (North, East, South, West). A vehicle is assigned to one of the groups based on the value of the dot product of its velocity vector and the unit vectors of the cardinal coordinates; the maximum value determines the group. It is expected that links between vehicles belonging to the same group will be stable [1]. As vehicles move in different directions, the links get disrupt and disconnected. Therefore, VHRP proactively monitors the status of the links and predicts the disconnection before it occurs. A link that directly connects two nodes belonging to different groups is considered unstable and is assigned a high cost. Accordingly, VHRP forwarding decisions give higher priority for stable links. Since VHRP exchanges periodic control messages and routing updates very often, it does require a significant bandwidth.

The designers of VHRP demonstrated that it could perform better than other forwarding protocols, namely Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector and Topology Dissemination Based on Reverse-Path Forwarding, in terms of network throughput and packet loss regardless of the speed of the vehicles, Figure 1. This is due to the path prediction and the continuous link evaluation. While simulation results showed good performance, VHRP might not perform as well in real world scenarios. For instance, VHRP assumes the availability of intermediate clusters to relay the packets in a multi-hop fashion, but VANET clusters might be completely isolated. Further, the clustering rule, employed by VHRP, does not limit the number of vehicles belonging to each group. This could potentially lead to a highly congested clusters, especially where traffic is very active and slow. Consequently, VHRP might lower the network’s throughput, given the fact that it consumes significant bandwidth

Find Another Essay On vehicular networks

Load Balanced Routing with Constant Stretch for Wireless Sensor Network with Holes

1097 words - 5 pages Because of its simplicity and scalability, geographic routing is a popular approach in wireless sensor networks, which can achieve a near-optimal routing path in the networks without of holes. With the occurrence of holes, however, geographic routing faces the problems of hole diffusion and routing path enlargement. Several recent proposals attempt to fix these issues by deploying a special, forbidding area around the hole, which helps to

Graduate Program in web Designing Essay

687 words - 3 pages Computers can be considered the eighth wonder of the world. Their use has become indispensible in every field – Communication, Database Systems, Banking, Robotics, Medicine, Vehicular Systems and what not. The World Wide Web and Internet has brought a new revolution across the world bringing the people closer through a plethora of networking applications such as chat, video conferencing, social networking and e-mail. When my father brought the

Transmission Power Control in Single-hop and Multi-hop Wireless Sensor Networks

2291 words - 9 pages , 2001. Proceedings. LCN 2001. 26th Annual IEEE Conference on, 2001, pp. 550–559. [15] M. Bandai, S. Nakayama, and T. Watanabe, “Energy efficient route construction scheme with continuous and discrete power control in ad hoc sensor networks,” in Vehicular Technology Conference, 2006. VTC 2006-Spring. IEEE 63rd, vol. 3, 2006, pp. 1082–1086. [16] A. Liu, H. Yu, J. Guo, H. Li, and X. Wang, “A strategy for selfconfiguring physical carrier

Solution to an Energy Utopian Oriented Alternative Fuel

789 words - 4 pages , “substantial refuelling networks are a pre-condition for the market’s accepting of alternative fuel vehicles”.2 The nature of the gas vehicle’s infrastructure also associates with large scale and large funding. These characteristics pose a direct problem for AFVs as John Sterman of MIT summarizes, “drivers will not find AFVs attractive without access to fuel, parts, and repair services, but energy producers,..and governments will not invest in AFV

Failure Prediction Algorithms

1236 words - 5 pages have not been large amounts of successful implementations of prognostics throughout the electronics world. In the cases were the implementations have been successful we have seen no significant delays in the overall schedule. Prichard (2000) examined a case where prognostics were used to justify implementing embedded circuit-level test on telecommunication networks. Major milestones in a telecommunications network’s life cycle were studied to

Improving Mobile WiMAX EAP-TTLS Authentication With Minimum Downtime and Securing its Management Channel

2229 words - 9 pages Verification of Authentication Protocols in WiMAX Networks”, Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Fall), Quebec City, pp. 1-5, 2012. [3] M. Bogdanoski, P. Latkoski, A. Risteski and B. Popovski, “IEEE 802.16 Security Issues: A Survey”, 16th Telecommunications Forum - TELFOR, Belgrade, pp. 199-202, 2008. [4] L. Blunk and J. Vollbrecht., PPP Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP). IETF RFC 2284, Mar. 1998. [5] H. Hwang, G. Jung, K. Sohn and S. Park, “A

Are Red Light Cameras the Answer?

2563 words - 11 pages Are Red Light Cameras the Answer? The automobile’s invention revolutionized the American transportation system. It allowed people to move themselves and cargo from city-to-city and state-to-state in a much faster and efficient manner. Its numbers increased as it gained popularity and became affordable. This led to the development of road networks both within and between cities. Problems arose in the areas where roads intersected each other

Ambulance Service Administration System Software Used with Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Technology

1628 words - 7 pages Background What is Vehicle-to-Infrastructure technology? Vehicle-to-Infrastructure technology is technology that allows cars to communicate with infrastructure elements, like stop lights. Vehicular Network is getting to be progressively well known lately, Vehicle-to-Vehicle and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure portable correspondence can give incredible assortment of practical applications. My proposal to First Medics, Inc. will incorporate point

"Prepare a report which explains how 3 urban dynamics operating in the city of Sydney have changed the nature and spatial patterns of the city

1746 words - 7 pages and in Sydney especially, the process of Suburbanisation is common, as it is ?The Great Australian Dream? to live in the suburbs with a large house on a ¼ acre block.Suburban living became possible in the later part of the nineteenth century with the introduction of the streetcar and suburban rail networks that allowed people to live further away from the city CBD. Until the introduction of the railways, cities remained very compact

Design and Simulation of an Intelligent Traffic Control System

1589 words - 7 pages management system and benefits as compared to PLC and other electronics equipment. 2.6 RESEARCH PAPER NO: 04 Title: Control of vehicular traffic through a sequence of traffic lights positioned with disordered interval Authors: Takashi Nagatani Summary: As per as Takashi Nagatani(2005b) research, the study is related with traffic lights on road side which are mounted in homogeneous interval, but the behavior of system will be dynamical through

The growth of the West Legon Boulevard and its effect on the provision of services

1782 words - 7 pages slowly but soon expanded into an unprecedented wave, helped along by improved communication and transportation networks. Between 1950 and 1975, the urban populations of less developed countries grew at 4 percent annually, much faster than in the more developed countries. The urban population more than doubled over that period and the percentage of residents living in urban areas in less developed countries rose from 18 percent to 27 percent. And

Similar Essays

Correlation And Concept Of Gis Application On Traffic Density

1464 words - 6 pages along road networks where the number of vehicles or pedestrians is high (Razzak, Khan & Jalal 2011, p. 644). To effectively control traffic density, the GIS experts may be required to cover large geographical areas along the roads and interface using many devices to manage the data obtained from various sources. Once the information is collected and analyzed, it is then passed to road users to inform them on which parts to avoid so that they can

The 25 U Soldier In A Mobilized Army: Job Of The Signal Support Systems Specialist

1164 words - 5 pages of common tools, the ability to lift up to fifty pounds in most cases, and the ability to make parts fit sometimes. On the other hand, you may only need another component and your hands. Some equipment you can expect to install are radio mounts, vehicular antennas, antenna cables, tactical computers, tactical local area networks, very high frequency radios, retransmission stations, secure tactical satellites, precision lightweight global

Life Time Prediction Of Node To Node Communication

2375 words - 10 pages on Network Protocols, IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, USA, 2001, pp. 14–23. [12] S. Lee, M. Gerla, Split multipath routing with maximally disjoint paths in ad hoc networks, Helsinki, Finland, 2001, pp. 3201–3205. [13] Z. Yao, J.J. Jiang, P. Fan, Z. Cao, V. Li, A neighbor table based multipath routing in ad hoc networks, in: 57th IEEE Semi Annual Vehicular Technology Conference, vol. 3, 2003, pp. 1739–1743. [14] Z. Ye, S.V

Machine And Human Centric Applications Essay

1578 words - 6 pages Communications (2011) 57:441-464. DOI 10.1007/s11277-010-0082-9 15. Demestichas, P., Jing Yao, "5G on the Horizon: Key Challenges for the Radio-Access Network," Vehicular Technology Magazine,IEEE,vol.8,no.3,pp.47,53,Sept.2013. 16. Prasad R., Future networks and technologies supporting Innovative communications, Network Infrastructure and Digital Content (IC-NIDC), 2012 3rd IEEE International Conference on , vol., no., pp.4,6, 21-23 Sept