This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Victimization Theories. Essay

1395 words - 6 pages

There are five major theories of victimization. These theories discuss how victims and victimization are major focuses in the study of crime. They all share many of the same assumptions and strengths dealing with crime and its victims. The five major theories are Victim precipitation, Lifestyle, Equivalent group hypothesis, Proximity hypothesis, and Routine activities.Victim Precipitation assumes that "victims provoke criminals" and that "victims trigger criminal acts by their provocative behavior" (106). According to our text, this theory states that the victim initiates the confrontation that might eventually lead to the crime. In victim precipitation, it can be either passive or active. Active precipitation occurs when the victim is the first to attack or encourages the criminal by their actions. Passive precipitation can either occur due to personal conflict or when the victim unknowingly threatens or provokes the attacker (95). The strengths that the text point out for this particular theory is that it "explains multiple victimizations. If people precipitate crime, it follows that they will become repeat victims if their behavior persists over time" (106).The theories that are more common are the "Lifestyle theories that suggest that victims put themselves in danger by engaging in high-risk activities" (106). "Victimization risk is increased when people have a high-risk lifestyle. Placing oneself at risk by going out to dangerous places results in increased victimization" (106). This theory "explains victimization patterns in the social structure. Males, young people, and the poor have high victimization rates because they have a higher-risk lifestyle than females, the elderly, and the affluent" (106). The lifestyle theories assume that the victim participates in high-risk activities which make them suitable targets for crime. The Deviant place theory discusses the fact that crime flourishes in certain places and the odds of victimization increase when people live in the high-crime areas. A person's lifestyle increases the exposure to criminal victimization as well as their behavior. These theories state that "crime is not a random occurrence but rather a function of the victim's lifestyle. High-risk lifestyle crimes occur because the potential victim's life style places them in jeopardy" (97). "Engaging in delinquent behavior face a greater risk of victimization" (98).Equivalent group hypothesis theory discusses how "Criminals and victims are one and the same. Both crime and victimization are part of a high-risk lifestyle" (106). "The equivalent group hypothesis holds that the characteristics of criminals and victims are remarkably similar because in reality the two groups are the same" (97). This hypothesis "shows that the conditions that create criminality also produce high victimization risk. Victims may commit crime out of a need for revenge or frustration" (106).In the text it discusses the Proximity hypothesis, which assumes that if...

Find Another Essay On Victimization Theories.

The Act of Violent Crime Essay

1567 words - 6 pages In the act of violent crime, the criminal uses the threat or physical violence against the victim. The violent crime act considered as manslaughters, murder, physical assault, sexual assault, kidnapping, and robbery or burglary. In this essay, I will analysis the violent crime, its movements, causes and method to moderate or reduce the violent crime through the different criminologist theories or views. This article assesses the teenager’s

Crime and Victimization Essay

868 words - 3 pages For decades, criminologists’ focus has been on the role the criminal plays only. However, there have been discoveries on the importance of the roles of the victims as well. This has been identified as an influencing factor that can motivate a criminal into criminal activities. Presently, there are a number of theories that explain the causes of victimization. Among the theories is the victim precipitation theory that gives a suggestion that

Social Control and Symbolic Interactionism in Literature

1351 words - 5 pages Social Control and Symbolic Interactionism in Literature The way in which social order is achieved has been the subject of many theories presented by respectable sociologists such as Emile Durkheim, Thomas Hobbes, George Herbert Mead, and Karl Marx. Among the most prominent of these theories are Hobbes’ “Social Control” theory and Meads’ “Symbolic Interactionism” theory. Through these two theories, it is possible to gain a better

The Root Causes of Sexual Offending: Social Learning Theory

1486 words - 6 pages Many etiological theories exist attempting to explain the root causes of sexual offending. Although few provide substantial evidence and no definitive conclusions have been made, the social learning theory has been proposed to account for sex offending behaviors. Specifically, the social learning theory, or victim-to-victimizer theory, suggests sexually abused children learn these behaviors and are much more likely to perpetrate abuse when

Hazardous Drinking and Sexual Assault

4703 words - 19 pages women is that because alcohol impairs motor abilities they are less able to protect themselves against victimization when under the influence (Abbey et al., 2004; Lawyer et al., 2010; Mohler-Kuo et al., 2004). Research has been devised based on these theories and suggestions by researchers. Research identifies several risk factors for victimization. One risk factor is that prior victimization relates to future victimization (Abbey et al., 2004

The Relationship Between Social Class and Delinquency

1451 words - 6 pages juvenile delinquency in the United States conclusions can be drawn from estimates derived from arrest records, self-reports, and victimization data. Arrest estimates, self-reported information, and victimization data provide different estimates of the extent of delinquency in the United States (Maxfield et al., 2000). The relationship between social class and delinquency is gauged by examining studies based on arrest data and self-reported data

Sexual Assault

1827 words - 8 pages also be discussed. Given the delicate nature of sexual assault cases, psychologist could face with challenges (what kind) to provide an effective therapy for their clients. Therefore, this review will address the challenges and how these challenges could be dealt in order to provide an effective therapy. The Elaboration Likelihood Model (Petty and Cacioppo, 1986) and Eagly and Chaiken’s (1992) model of attitude-change are examples of theories

Perils of Peer Victimization

1788 words - 7 pages room, about jumping off the bridge, smashing down there like a pumpkin, half of an eye, half of a grin. I would come apart like that, I would be dead, like the dead people.” (120) After suffering from peer victimization caused by the group of bullies, Elaine’s inner psyche describes in detail on how she plans to commit suicide through the use of imagery. Using the Freudian theories, Elaine’s Id was shown briefly as she slowly exhibits irrational

Violence in a Child's Mind

1959 words - 8 pages of playing violent video games which might have influence them to act in such a violent way, although it has never been linked as the real cause. According to this article, some theories have also tried to explain how aggression may be acquired by observation like the Anderson and Bushman theory of acquired aggressiveness from overlaying violent video games. This theory states that playing violent video games repeatedly creates knowledge in the

The Routine Activities Theory

1112 words - 4 pages There are many definitions to theory. According to Akers, “theories are tentative answers to the commonly asked questions about events and behavior.” Theory is a set of interconnected statements that explain how two or more things are related, based upon a confirmed hypotheses and established multiple times by disconnected groups of researchers. There are six elements that make a theory sound. These elements are scientific criteria provide

Determining the Cause of Bullying by Using Three Main Criminological Theories

1105 words - 5 pages A number of studies that have been conducted concluded with the fact that school bullying has become a global concern regardless of cultural differences. In light of this fact, there have been few studies that have examined individual factors that affect bullying. The current study that will be discussed attempts to determine the cause of bullying by using three main criminological theories, which are general theory of crime, differential

Similar Essays

Theories Of Victimization Essay

1220 words - 5 pages Theories of Victimization(3)Melissa MarcianoCRJ330-01Dr. Dian WilliamsThe greatest predictor of becoming a victim in the future is if a person was a victim in the past. For example, if a person was sexually molested as a child, it's likely that person will become a victim of rape as an adult. David Finkelhor and Nancy Asigian suggest three types of characteristics increase a person's potential for victimization: Target Vulnerability, Target

Sport, Aggression, Violence And Victimization Essay

1256 words - 5 pages Sport-Related Aggression, Violence, and Victimization Aggression, violence, and victimization are remarkably dynamic terms. How these terms are understood and defined is shaped by formal and informal social policies and controls (Goldstein, 1986). Excluding assertiveness from the definition of aggression as it relates to violence, aggression can be considered to encompass behaviors intended to cause physical or psychological harm. Violence may

Feminist Criminology Essay

1275 words - 5 pages . A majority of those homicides were done in low income areas. In the same study the average victim profile in household burglary is less than 19 years old, an annual income of less than $15,000, and renters living in a multifamily unit. Works Cited Siegel, L. (2006). Criminology. 9th ed. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth. McGrath, J. (2009). Theories of Victimization. Yahoo Voices. Retrieved from http://voices.yahoo.com/theories-victimization

The Evolution Of The Concept Of Victim

2182 words - 9 pages into ways in which victims "contribute" to their own victimization is considered by victims and victim advocates as both unacceptable and destructive. Yet a few enduring models and near-theories exist.      The Luckenbill's Situated Transaction Model : This one is commonly found in sociology of deviance textbooks. The idea is that at the interpersonal level, crime and victimization is a contest of character. The