What makes society progressive is the growth of a nation towards the better. What makes a nation powerful and grow is the division of labor. It has been apparent over the centuries of technological growth that within a society the more societal advancements there are, the more division of labor there is within the nation. Durkheim considered the division of labor has a natural law, one that not only was in humans but all organisms. Durkheim felt that although everything should be divided into his or her own labor, it was all for the greater good, the social solidarity. The social solidarity meant that everyone worked separately for the same outcome at the end. He brings in different types of laws to characterize the different types of social solidarities they bring with it. Mechanical and organic solidarity are what he mentions and each one is completely different from one another. Criminal laws and their respective punishments promoted mechanical solidarity, which was a sense of unity that results in individuals engaging in similar work who come from the same backgrounds. Civil laws promote organic solidarity; it is a society that individuals engage in different kinds of works that benefit society as a whole. He explains that nations with a more mechanical viewpoint have less developed societies because the diversity and division of labor is much less, so individuals share similar views of life and so do not bring different thoughts into society. However nations in organic view points have more diverse occupations therefore people rely on each other more, which results in greater benefits to the society.
Marx viewed the increase in specialization leads workers to be less enthusiastic for their work and leads them to have poor overall skills. They can not grow as workers if they stay doing the same job over and over again. He argues that the worker becomes, “depressed spiritually and physically to the condition of the machine.” Now the machine could be the literal machine the worker is using to create the task he as to do or the overall machine of the company itself and its division. Marx also argues that it hurts society overall. With people staying in their own divisions society keeps the classes where they are. People cannot rise the through...