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Vision Essay

1077 words - 4 pages

Phylicia Phillips"Describe some of the specialised neural pathways and brain areas involved in visual perception, including examples of their roles" (1000 words)Vision is the human brain's biggest commitment. It is our primary sensory mechanism. Information from the environment is gathered in the visual system, which is then sent to the brain through neural impulses. This process is called transduction, which is the process of transforming physical energy into neural movement. The eye is made up of many different parts to which enables vision. the iris which is the coloured part opens and closes allowing more or less light into the eye through The pupil, the lens focuses the light, the fovea, which is the centre of the retina is the area of sharp vision, has the thickest supply of photoreceptors specifically for colour. The optic disc has no receptors, therefore forming the blind spot (Kolb and Whishaw (2010)). The optic nerve carries information from the eye to the brain. As light it enters the eye, the cornea is transparent and admits light, the light then reaches the pupil and is bent by the lens. The cornea has a fixed curvature, whereas the lens has small muscles that adapt the curvature to focus near and far. A backward and inverted image is projected by the cornea and lens by focusing light rays on a light-receptive surface.The Electromagnetic (EM) Spectrum displays light wavelengths. We see the shortest visible wavelengths as dark purple. As the wavelength upsurges, we see colour change from violet to blue to green to yellow, orange and red, which are the colours of the rainbow. The array of light visible to humans is controlled by the assets of our visual receptors. The visual system responds to light energy, which travels from the environment via the pupil, into the eye where it reaches the back of the eye, called the retina. The photoreceptor cells on the retina and neurons interpret light into activity, distinguishing wavelengths so that we can differentiate colours, from very light to very dark. There are two types of photoreceptors. The rods and cones. There are more rods than cones, their main purpose is for night vision as they are sensitive to luminance light, especially in dim light. Cones on the other hand do not respond to dim light, however they are extremely responsive to bright light, and help us to distinguish between black, white and shades of grey.Cones facilitate colour vision and the ability to see fine detail. Rods and cones are not fairly distributed over the retina. Both rods and cones have pigments that absorb light, these pigments form the basis of our vision. There are three types of cones, each dependent on the wavelength of light. Short wavelength (blue light), medium (green light), and long (red light). The optic nerve is formed by the retinal ganglion cells axons assembling in a collection at the optic disc. The optic nerve is formed by the RGC, creating a path to the brain, this path leads to various...

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