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Visual Impairment Essay

2206 words - 9 pages

IntroductionDown's Syndrome Vision Research Group defines Visual impairment as a reduction in vision because of a disorder or disease of the eye or brain. A person is considered to be "visually impaired" when their visual acuity is 20/70 or less in the better eye with best correction, or a visual field of 140 degrees or less in the better eye. Having 20/70 vision means that a person can see an object or symbol at 20 feet away while a non-visually impaired individual can see that same object or symbol 70 feet away.Students with visual impairments cannot make normal progress in their schooling unless the teacher is prepared to adjust his or her teaching strategy. There are many elements that can cause visual impairments and the teacher needs to be aware of signs such as blinking often, squinting while looking at the chalkboard, having an unusual head tilt while reading or red or inflamed eyes. If teachers can identify signs of visual impairments, they can do a couple of things; they can adjust the environment to make the student comfortable, they can change their teaching strategy to allow the student to learn and they can refer the student to the correct persons so that the student can get help.Overview of the EyeOur eyes help us to obtain information from our environment. The human eye is similar to a camera; it collects, focuses, and transmits light through a lens to create an image of its surroundings. In a camera, the image is created on film or an image sensor while in the eye, the image is created on the retina; a thin layer of light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye."Light rays enter the front of our eye through the clear cornea and lens. It is very important that both the cornea and lens are clear as this allows the light to pass directly through the front of the eye to the retina. The cornea and lens bends light so that it can focus on the retina at the back of our eye. This gives us a clear, precise image. The cornea focuses the light towards our retina. The lens fine-tunes the focusing of this light. Our tears form a protective layer at the front of the eye and also help to direct the light coming into our eye. The iris, the coloured circle at the front of our eye, changes the size of the pupil, which allows different amounts of light into our eye. The pupil is the dark hole in the middle of the coloured part of our eye. The pupil gets smaller in bright conditions to let less light in. The pupil gets bigger in dark conditions to let more light in.The middle of our eye is filled with a jelly-like substance called the vitreous. The vitreous is clear and allows light to pass directly from the front to the back of our eye.The retina at the back of the eye is a light-sensitive layer which consists of rod and cone cells. These cells collect the light signals directed onto them and send them as electrical signals to the optic nerve at the back of our eye. Rod cells are concentrated around the edge of the retina. They help us to see...

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