Vitamin D Suuplementation Essay

1776 words - 8 pages

Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that is necessary for skeletal health. It assists in the absorption of calcium from the intestines, and the breakdown and assimilation of phosphorous, both of which are essential for healthy bone and teeth development and function. Vitamin D also helps to maintain a healthy nervous system, normal heart functioning, and normal clotting responses by helping the body absorb calcium (Romm, 2003). The functions of this vitamin are widespread and complex, and in many ways it acts as a hormone. During pregnancy and breastfeeding it facilitates the crucial transfer of calcium from mother to child for skeletal development (Finer, et al., 2011). This paper will ...view middle of the document...

There is also a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women (Yu, Sykes, Sethi, Teoh, & Robinson, 2009). In one study, researchers found a deficiency in up to 84% of pregnant women (Finer, et al., 2011). These deficiencies may result from lower amounts of sunlight exposure because of lifestyle preferences, work schedules, and fear of skin damage and cancer. Sunscreen also prevents the skin’s ability to manufacture adequate levels of vitamin D (Murphy & Wagner, 2008).
Vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy can detrimentally affect women as well as their newborns. It can lead to high bone turnover, osteomalacia, hypovitaminosis, and myopathy in the mother (Yu, Sykes, Sethi, Teoh, & Robinson, 2009). During pregnancy, maternal vitamin D metabolism is altered, which enables the transfer of calcium across the placenta to the growing fetal skeleton. Extra calcium is obtained primarily from increased maternal intestinal calcium absorption, which is a vitamin D dependent process (Finer, et al., 2011). When there is maternal vitamin D deficiency, the maternal skeleton will also be used as a source of calcium for the developing fetus, using parathyroid hormone (PTH) to mobilize calcium in the vitamin D independent process. During breastfeeding, further adaptations involving maternal PTH (which mobilizes calcium in the vitamin D independent process) occur. These calcium mobilizing processes may result in significant calcium losses in the bones of pregnant and lactating women (Finer, et al., 2011). Studies have shown that women often lose 3 to 5 percent of their bone mass during lactation alone (National Institute for Health, 2012).
The amount of vitamin D in breast milk has been found to be low. (Worthington-Roberts, 2000). Maternal sunlight exposure and dietary intake directly affect the vitamin D levels in breast milk. This was demonstrated through a study that measured vitamin D levels in the milk of lactating women before and after a short course of oral vitamin D supplementation or exposure to ultraviolet phototherapy. The vitamin D levels peaked at one week with the oral vitamin D supplementation and two to three days after the ultraviolet phototherapy and then quickly returned to baseline when supplementation or phototherapy stopped. Other studies confirm the direct relationship between maternal and infant levels of vitamin D. This supports the idea that maternal vitamin D intake directly affects the vitamin D concentration in breast milk (Worthington-Roberts, 2000).
Rickets is a disorder caused by a lack of vitamin D that leads to the softening and weakening of the bones (Health P. , 2012). While, rickets is common in many breastfed infants in the Middle East, there has been a resurgence in the last five years of rickets in the United States among breast-fed infants. Neonatal rickets is an uncommon consequence of maternal vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy, but rickets in infants can result from a combination of the lack of...

Find Another Essay On vitamin d suuplementation

Psychological Egoism Theory Essay

2240 words - 9 pages The theory of psychological egoism is indeed plausible. The meaning of plausible in the context of this paper refers to the validity or the conceivability of the theory in question, to explain the nature and motivation of human behavior (Hinman, 2007). Human actions are motivated by the satisfaction obtained after completing a task that they are involved in. For example, Mother Teresa was satisfied by her benevolent actions and

How Celtic Folkore has Influenced My Family

1587 words - 6 pages Every family has a unique background that influences the way they live and interact with other people. My parents, who emigrated from Ireland to the States with my three brothers in 1989, brought over their own Celtic folklore and traditions that have helped shaped the way our family operates and lives. One aspect of folklore that has helped shape my family dynamic is the Celtic cross—both its background and what role it has played in our lives

Julia Margaret Cameron

1406 words - 6 pages At a time when women were looked upon as being homemakers, wives, mothers and such the late 1850's presented a change in pace for one woman in specific. Photography was discovered in 1826 and soon after the phenomenon of photography was being experimented with and in turn brought new and different ways of photo taking not only as documenting real time, but also conceptualizing a scene in which an image would be taken. Julia Margaret Cameron will

Evaluation of School Improvement

1403 words - 6 pages The evaluation process should be progressive to incorporate overall planning, implement changes, which contribute to success. In order to focus on school climate and norms, the evaluation design must include the students, instructions, and outcomes to improve communication and building-level concerns to be address in this response. School Climate and Social Norms The school principal, other staff leaders, and personnel set the tone and the

Case Study: The Benefits of Animal Testing

1757 words - 7 pages Nine year old Amy has already had a rough start in life. She was born with an abnormal heart that hinders her everyday activities. Amy is unable to keep up with kids her own age because she often tires out easily. As a consequence, she has very little friends and is often alone. Amy is forced to take different medications everyday just to survive. Amy’s life consists of medicine, doctors, and constant hospital visits. However, Amy is due for a

Myth and Magic: Realism in "One Hundred Years of Solitude"

1531 words - 6 pages “He enjoyed his grandmother's unique way of telling stories. No matter how fantastic or improbable her statements, she always delivered them as if they were the irrefutable truth” (Wikipedia, 2011). Experiences are particular instances of one personally encountering or undergoing something and in these moments of time life changes for the best or the worst and memories are formed. These recollections such as riding your first bicycle, going to

Adiponectin: a Novel Indicator of Malnutrition and Inflammation in Hemodialysis Patients

2384 words - 10 pages , Eraldemir C, Kalender B, Kir HM, Caglayan C. Adipocytokines leptin and adiponectin, and measures of malnutrition-inflammation in chronic renal failure: is there a relationship? J Ren Nutr2008 Jul;18(4):332-7. 14. Malgorzewicz S, Lichodziejewska-Niemierko M, Aleksandrowicz-Wrona E, Swietlik D, Rutkowski B, Lysiak-Szydlowska W. Adipokines, endothelial dysfunction and nutritional status in peritoneal dialysis patients. Scand J Urol Nephrol2010 Dec;44(6

The Congo Free State: A Legacy of Apathy, Exploitation and Brutality

2298 words - 9 pages Between 1885 and 1908, Belgium’s Leopold II ruled Congo, a region in central Africa, as his personal colony, exploiting the resources and inhabitants for his own gain. Leopold allowed and encouraged Europeans and other Westerners to enter Congo and set up companies whose primary purpose was to gather rubber, which was abundant but difficult to get to in the Congo, using the Congolese as the laborers for the Europeans. Rubber gathering in Congo

Selective Exposition in The Lottery, by Shirley Jackson

1073 words - 4 pages Usually when someone hears the word “lottery” the first thing that comes to mind is a large sum of cash that people compete against highly impractical odds to win. Shirley Jackson’s story The Lottery might imply a similar conception based on the title alone, but the story is filled with unknowns never revealing exactly when and where the story takes place, or why the lottery exists; even what the lottery is isn’t revealed until the very end. Yet


1857 words - 7 pages INTRODUCTION I remember when I was a young child; I would always be scared whenever there was a severe storm outside that included thunder and lightning. This was especially true in the hours of darkness, when you could really see the lightning. As I grew older this so-called fear of lightning turned into a fascination for this weather phenomena. One of my most vivid memories of lightning as a young man was when I was flying to Florida, the

Maryland's Ecology and Environment

1130 words - 5 pages , Philip D., Grace S. Brush, & George W. Fisher. (2001). Discovering the Chesapeake. The History of an Ecosystem. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. Fighting Climate Change to Secure a Sustainable Future for Maryland. (2011). Retrieved from Jones, K. Bruce, Kurt H. Ritters, James D. Wickham, Rober D. Tankersley, Robert O’neill, Deborah J. Chaloud, Elizabeth

Similar Essays

When The Bubble Burst Essay

1539 words - 6 pages By the time I arrived state side from my second tour in the Middle East the housing bubble had already burst. I noticed a drastic change in the way that many of my friends and family were living. Several of my friends that worked in real estate had sold their boats and seconds houses. My own stock portfolio had lost a third of its value. My sister and her husband had defaulted on their home mortgage leaving them scrambling for a place to live. I

Phase Diagram Essay

4456 words - 18 pages Introduction: Chemical equilibrium is a crucial topic in Chemistry. To represent and model equilibrium, the thermodynamic concept of Free energy is usually used. For a multi-component system the Gibbs free energy is a function of Pressure, Temperature and quantity (mass, moles) of each component. If one of these parameters is changed, a state change to a more energetically favorable state will occur. This state has the lowest free energy

Revolutionary Work Of Art Essay

1890 words - 8 pages Walter Benjamin emphasizes in his essay, “The Work of Art in the Age of its Technological Reproducibility” that technology used to make an artwork has changed the way it was received, and its “aura”. Aura represents the originality and authenticity of a work of art that has not been reproduced. The Sistine Chapel in the Vatican is an example of a work that has been and truly a beacon of art. It has brought a benefit and enlightenment to the art

Enlightenment Thought In New Zealand Schools

1594 words - 6 pages In this essay I will be looking at how the political and intellectual ideas of the enlightenment have shaped New Zealand Education. I will also be discussing the perennial tension of local control versus central control of education, and how this has been affected by the political and intellectual ideas of the enlightenment. The enlightenment was an intellectual movement, which beginnings of were marked by the Glorious Revolution in Britain