Vivendi Universal Essay

5205 words - 21 pages

Depuis la fin des années soixante la croissance externe des sociétés par le moyen des fusions acquisitions est devenue monnaie courante. Cela a été rendu possible notamment grâce à la libéralisation des mouvements de capitaux qui a débuté dès la fin des années soixante aux Etats-Unis et une dizaine d'années plus tard en Europe. Cette libéralisation financière prend souvent le nom de globalisation financière et peut se matérialiser par trois étapes. D'abord, il y eu un décloisonnement des marchés avec la fin du contrôle des changes, une déspécialisation des activités et un arbitrage de plus en plus étroit entre les différents marchés ou les différents compartiments d'un même marché. Ensuite, vient le temps de la déréglementation (qui éventuellement peut englober le décloisonnement des marchés) qui peut, par exemple, être illustrée soit par l'apparition de comptes à vue rémunérés qui ont entraîné une marchéïsation des bilans bancaires soit par l'apparition d'instruments destinés à gérer l'apparition des nouveaux risques tels que les risques de taux ou de changes (futures, swaps etc.) Enfin, dernière étape de la globalisation financière, le phénomène de désintermédiation. En effet, les banques se désengagent de plus en plus, maintenant, des crédits anciens en procédant à leur titrisation et, dans le même temps, l'implication des banques dans les financements nouveaux ne se fait qu'à titre de garantie (RU...).C'est dans ce nouvel environnement financier international que nous allons étudier dans ce mémoire la manière par laquelle La Générale des Eaux est devenue Vivendi puis Vivendi Universal. Nous allons étudier dans un premier temps les différentes motivations qui poussent les entreprises à fusionner. Nous nous intéresserons ensuite au cas spécifique Vivendi dont nous analyserons les desseins qui la poussait vers une expansion externes irréfrénable. Il sera alors intéressant de considérer les différentes règles juridiques qui ont trait aux fusions acquisitions notamment dans le cas de Vivendi Universal. Force sera de constater que Vivendi a essuyé un échec cuisant à travers sa stratégie de croissance sans limite, pourquoi un tel retournement de situation ? Pour finir nous élargirons notre réflexion sur les mutations des sociétés de communication et sur les conséquences que celles-ci ont sur notre culturelle et notre liberté en générale.I. Le...

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