This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Voting Based Extreme Learning Machine Essay

1422 words - 6 pages

Real valued classification is a popular decision making problem, having wide
practical application in various fields. Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) pro-
posed by Huang et al.[1], is an effective machine learning technique for real val-
ued classification. ELMis a single hidden layer feedfo5 rward network in which the
weights between input and hidden layer are initialized randomly. ELM uses ana-
lytical approach to compute weights between hidden and output layer [2], which
makes it faster compared to other gradient based classifiers ([3, 4]). Various
variants of ELM were recently proposed, which includes Incremental Extreme
10 Learning Machine [5], Kernelized Extreme Learning Machine [6], ...view middle of the document...

are some of the complex-
valued classifiers designed for real valued classification problems. CCELM out-
performs other complex valued classifiers for real valued classification problems.
It also performs well when dataset is imbalanced.
35 It has been observed that many practical classification problems have im-
balanced data sets[23, 24]. If we classify such data, most of the classifiers favours
the majority class due to which most of the instances belonging to minority class
are misclassified. To deal with such dataset, various sampling approaches [25]
as well as algorithmic approaches are used. Sampling approaches includes over-
40 sampling and undersampling techniques. Oversampling replicates a fraction of
minority samples while undersampling approach reduces a fraction of major-
ity samples to make dataset balanced. But there is problem with sampling
approaches. Oversampling [26] increases redundancy of data and undersam-
pling results in loss of information. In algorithmic approach, classifier design
45 encompasses the measures to handle class imbalance. Most of the neural net-
work based classifiers like FCRBF [4, 3],CCELM[9] minimizes least square error
to find optimal weights. Recently proposed WELM minimizes weighted least
square error function to find optimal weights between hidden and output layer.
In this classifier, residuals of minority class are assigned more weights compared
50 to majority class. This increases the impact of minority samples. Finding opti-
mal weighting scheme is a challenging task. WELM [7] proposes and evaluates
two generalized weight schemes for assigning weights to the instances.

Works Cited

[1] G.-B. Huang, Q.-Y. Zhu, C.-K. Siew, Extreme learning machine: theory
300 and applications, Neurocomputing 70 (1-3) (2006) 489–501.
2] M.-B. Li, G.-B. Huang, P. Saratchandran, N. Sundararajan, Fully complex
extreme learning machine, Neurocomputing 68 (1-4) (2005) 306–314.
[3] R. Savitha, S. Suresh, N. Sundararajan, H. J. Kim, A fully complex-valued
radial basis function classifier for real valued classification problems, Neu-
rocomputin305 g 78 (1) (2012) 104–110.
[4] R. Savitha, S. Suresh, N. Sundararajan, A fully complex valued radial
basis function network and its learning algorithm, International Journal of
Neural Systems 19 (4) (2009) 253–267.
[5] G.-B. Huang, M.-B. Li, L. Chen, C. K. Siew, Incremental extreme learning
310 machine with fully complex hidden nodes, Neurocomputing 71 (4-6) (2008)
[6] G.-B. Huang, H. Zhou, X. Ding, R. Zhang, Extreme learning machine for
regression and multiclass classification, IEEE Trans. on Syst. Man and
Cybern., Part B 42 (2) (2012) 513–529.
315 [7] W. Zong, G.-B. Huang, Y. Chen, Weighted extreme learning machine for
imbalance learning, Neurocomputing 101 (2013) 229–242.
[8] W. Deng, Q. Zheng, L. Chen, Regularized extreme learning machine, in:
IEEE Symposium on Computational Intelligence and Data Mining (CIDM
09), March 30 - April 2, 2009, pp. 389–395.
320 [9] R....

Find Another Essay On Voting Based Extreme Learning Machine

Debate: Electronic Voting Essay

1995 words - 8 pages There are many controversial topics in this politically correct world. There are topics about morals, standards, and personal ethics. One of the newest debatable subjects however, is the one concerning this new centuries way of casting an individual’s vote, through electronic voting. Electronic voting is a way to cast a person’s ballot using an electronic voting machine that is touch screen. There are many advantages to using these machines

The Majority Of Texas Voters Are Republicans

653 words - 3 pages chad are detached or if light is visible through the hole it can be determined which candidate the voter was voting for.To ensure that the voting machines tabulate the vote correctly, Cuellar suggest having each ballot inspected by a human eye before it is counted by the machine. This is so any irregular markings can be caught and corrected before the ballot is tabulated incorrectly by the machine.Finally Secretary of State Cuellar recommended that

The Case for Mandatory Voting in Canada

3118 words - 12 pages a part of that process compulsory voting is the simplest way to accomplish this; Australia poses as an excellent example. As a democratic country elections are based around the idea that elected candidates will represent the needs as well as the principles of the voters (Ornstein, 2010). Mandatory voting undoubtedly raises electoral turnout and sequentially allows the government to be more representative (Selb and Latchat, 2009). James Acton

Cynicism of the American Political Process

1013 words - 4 pages face as voters. The ideological platform of various parties should be introduced to student, so that when they come of voting age they have the background to vote for the parties that will best represent their interests. The better-informed youth are about the facts of issues, the more informed a decision they could make during elections.   Education of youth about political matters, then, will prevent them from voting based on

Should We Cast the Ballot Electronically?

1751 words - 7 pages Electronic Voting,” Mercuri states point for point the reasons (based on her years of research) why there should be no government election held “that does not provide an indisputable paper ballot which can be checked by the voter visually before deposit and used by the election board in the case of a recount.” In summery her reasons include: that the voter cannot verify their ballot cast, there is no availability of a manual recount, it is not secure

The Value Of A Jury System

1651 words - 7 pages juries in      civil cases" . Once we see how juries serve as major avenues for popular education and political participation, the connections early American observers drew between jury service and other means of political participation --especially voting-make more sense. Tocqueville keenly understood these linkages: "The jury system as understood in America seems to me to be as direct and extreme a

Bullies At The Voting Both

912 words - 4 pages was prohibiting people from entering and voting through public humiliation and unlawful questioning, and as a result the U.S. Justice Department sent officials to monitor elections in Hamtramck between 2000 and 2003. Florida was an area of extreme controversy after the 2000 election, where in July of 2004 the Miami Herald revealed that the state had issued faulty felon ineligibility lists which was comprised of 48,000 names of people ineligible

Analysis Paper for “City Politics Chapter 4”

1569 words - 7 pages certain segments of a city's population by cleverly eliminating any type of political leverage that a collective small ethic group could receive from a ward-based system. It was obvious that the voting process had to be reformed to correct the extreme cases of corruption that played a role in many political machine-cities, yet interesting that the reformers were able to come up with policies that dealt with the issues, but were unable to truly

Texas Election System

1723 words - 7 pages With respect to every election race, we are reminded that decisions are both profoundly charged typical customs of a voting based system in a democratic society and is a key procedural part of our political system. Both segments of the political elections, typical and procedural, serve key functions at all levels of our political system. With any decision, both parties (republican and democratic) campaign over the state to gain support from

No reference quality assessment

2078 words - 9 pages predictor was used to estimate the image quality score. S Suresh et al. [13] proposed extreme machine learning based approach for image quality assessment. The functional relationship between extracted HVS features and MOS quantifies the quality of the image. In this paper the blockiness based features/parameters of JPEG images are calculated. These four parameters are 1) Edge amplitude 2) Edge length 3) Background activity 4) Background luminance. To

Voter Behavior

876 words - 4 pages . Bianco would say, in response to Johnson's comment, that voters are rational in their abstinence for a few reasons. Bianco wrote that even if a voter preferred one candidate a lot more than the other, he/she will probably still abstain from voting. The main reason people do not vote is the benefits and costs of voting. For many people, the costs outweigh the benefits, so they do not vote. Costs such as location, citizenship, learning about the

Similar Essays

Voting Based Neural Network: Extreme Learning Machine

1057 words - 5 pages . Neurocomputing 72:3391-3395 8. Cao J, Lin Z, Huang G-B, Liu N (2012) Voting based extreme learning machine. Information Sciences 185:66-77 9. Tian H-X, Mao Z-Z (2010) An Ensemble ELM Based on Modified AdaBoost.RT Algorithm for Predicting the Temperature of Molten Steel in Ladle Furnance IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering 7(1):73-80 10. Wang G, Li P (2010) Dynamic Adaboost Ensemble Extreme Learning Machine. Paper presented at the 3rd

Cryptographic Protocols For Electronic Voting Essay

6667 words - 27 pages votes with minimal processing error. Assuming that all parties involved in the process of creating an electronic voting machine perform ethically, and that enough time, money, and effort is expended to do the job correctly, it should be possible to create a system that processes each entry that was received by the system. However, even making those assumptions, it is not quite that simple. There may be many reasons that a valid entry is not

Electronic Voting Essay

3444 words - 14 pages Table of Contents: 1. Introduction 2. Operation 3. Block Diagram 4. Description 4.1 How it is used 4.2 Where it is used 5. Security Issues 6. Strengths of E-Voting 7. Weaknesses of E-voting 8. Voting system Requirements 9. Conclusion 10. References Introduction: Electronic voting machine has now become an effective tool for voting. It mainly ensures flawless voting and thus has become a more widespread

The Hazards Of E Voting Essay

1093 words - 4 pages lost or mis-counted. Human error is of course, uncontrollable. This error combined with the partiality of all humans, prompted the development of machines that would register, store and count the ballots which were cast. Electronic voting, or e-voting, soon found advocates and lots of opposition. Many in the opposition thought of this idea as ephemeral, how could one entrust democracy to an imperfect machine? A Diebold E-vote Machine