Eukaryotic cells are the most structurally advanced of the major cell types. Describe the structure and function of each of the eukaryotic organelles. Distinguish between those that are and are not membranous. Most are membranous.
Eukaryotic cells, whether from animals, plants, protists, or fungi, are the most structurally advanced of the major cell types. Eukaryote are single-celled or multicellular organism whose cells contain nucleus and any other structures (organelles) enclosed within the membrane that perform specific functions. The surface of the cell is covered with a thin film or plasma membrane, which is the boundary that separates the living cell from its nonliving surroundings. Plasma membranes are composed mostly of proteins and lipids (Simon, 02/2012, p. 59-60).
The most important and largest cellular organelle is the nucleus, which houses most of the eukaryotic cell’s DNA and is surrounded by a double membrane. The nucleus contains most of the cells genetic material. The nucleus is the control center of the cell.
“The plasma membrane is the edge of life, the boundary that separates the living cell from its nonliving surroundings. The plasma membrane is a remarkable film, so thin that you would have to stack 8,000 of these membranes to equal the thickness of the page you are reading. Yet the plasma membrane can regulate the traffic of chemicals into and out of the cell. The key to how a membrane works is its structure” (Simon, 02/2012, p. 60).
Other than the previously mentioned nucleus, below are other organelles commonly found in eukaryotic cells. Comparison of structures between animal and plant cells (Table 1.0).
• Mitochondria which makes energy out of food are surrounded by two membranes and have their own genome.
• Ribosomes make protein. They are comprised of protein and rRNA and are not membrane-bound organelles like other organelles. Ribosomes are the site of protein synthesis in a cell.
• Golgi Apparatus are a major organelle in most eukaryotic cells. Golgi apparatus cells modifies, sorts and packages proteins for secretion. It functions as a molecular assembly line that membrane proteins undergo extensive post-transitional modification. Golgi apparatus is part of the endomembrane system that includes the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus, and lysosomes (Endoplasmic Reticulum, Golgi Apparatus, and Lysosomes, 2013).
• Lysosome contains digestive enzymes to help break down food. Lysosomes are part of the endomembrane system that also includes the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus.
• Endoplasmic Reticulum is for transporting all sorts of items around the cell. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are part of the endomembrane system that also includes the Lysosomes and Golgi apparatus. The ER is a system of membranous tubules and sacs. The primary function of the ER is to...