Wages For The Ages – Nonparametric Hypothesis Testing

866 words - 3 pages

Wages for the Ages - Nonparametric Hypothesis Testing Overall experience is no longer the most valuable commodity and some say experienced staff (ages 40+) earn less money (Woolnough, 2004). On the other hand, some say younger workers (under 40) are getting the short end of the stick as they start their career for half the amount of older seasoned workers. Are wages for these age groups equal? With that question in mind for week three's paper and presentation Team A decided to use the Wages and Wage Earners data set to determine if the data reflected equality in wages for the ages. The Wages and Wage Earners data set was compiled of 100 wage earners ages 18-64 seen in table 3. There were 46 wage earners in the 41-65 age set and 54 wage earners in the 18-40 year age sample (Lind, Marchal & Wathen, 2008). Do wage earners ages 41-65 earn the same pay as wage earners ages 18-40?The Parametric CounterpartIn the assignment for week three Team A failed to reject the null hypothesis: Wage earners ages 18-40 earn the same pay as wage earners ages 41-65. The significance level of .05, the z-statistic and a two-tailed test was used to determine the truth of the hypothesis. For week four the team is to use the same information to conduct an equivalent, nonparametric test of hypothesis. Nonparametric tests makes less rigid demands of the data. The assumptions of normality , constant variances and like standard deviations are not necessary. The team chose to analyze the data using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test as a counterpart. "The Mann-Whitney test is a nonparametric test to compare two populations, utilizing only the ranks of the data from two independent samples" (Doane & Seward, 2007). After ranking the combined samples of the data the Mann Whitney is virtually identical to performing an ordinary parametric two-sample t-Test. This test was first proposed for the case of two samples of equal size by Wilcoxon (1945). Mann and Whitney (1947) introduced an equivalent statistic and they were the first to acknowledge unequal sample sizes and to appoint tables suitable for use with inadequate sample sizes.The HypothesisThe first step was ranking the combined data values as a single group seen in table 4. Taking into consideration the inference to rank or order and the need to designate the smaller sample as sample 1 the hypotheses for this paper are as follows:H₀: n₁ = n₂ (There is no difference in pay between wage earners 41-65 and wage earners 18-40).H₁: n₁ = n₂ (The pay differs between wage earners 41-65 and wage earners 18-40).Significance, Statistical Test and the Decision RuleThe significance level of .05 which is a commonly used measure was selected asin the previous paper giving the test a 5% margin of error. There was no direction stated so the two-tailed...

Find Another Essay On Wages for the Ages – Nonparametric Hypothesis Testing

Greeting Cards for the Ages Essay

815 words - 3 pages I examined were cards for those between the age of thirty and sixty. These cards varied greatly from those of the previous group. This is also the group where I could see the greatest difference in gender. There were several cards for women who were turning thirty or forty; often these cards seem to offer condolence and support as if at these ages you loose something. There were cards showing women with graying hair and wider hips the bodies

Evaluate the evidence for and against the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.

1029 words - 4 pages , not all critics of Whorf’s theory were negative. Carrol and Casagrande (1958) proved that Navaho Indian children were better at form recognition than western children, helping to confirm Whorf’s hypothesis that language determines thought.Several studies have also been performed which show support for the theory of linguistic relativity. Lucy and Shweder (1979) performed a colour memory test which was found to support Whorf’s

The United States and Cuba: An Embargo for the Ages

4656 words - 19 pages The United States and Cuba: An Embargo for the Ages Cuba’s colorful history can be documented to before the days of the American Revolution in 1776, but today, American policy directly affects many Cubans’ lifestyles because of a nearly 45-year-old trade embargo that has been placed on the island nation. It is crucial to analyze the development of Cuba and its neighboring island nations in order to discern the reasons for Cuba’s current

Animal Testing and People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals

1307 words - 5 pages some medicines would be cheaper and more reliable to humans. How ethical is animal testing compared to other methods of testing products for humane medical use? Today a lot of people are just looking for the most effective product out there to use. If animals aren’t used for testing products, consumers are more likely to buy these products. Humans are more at risk for side effects because animals don’t always get accurate results. Animals and

Which Religion Did Most For Medicine in the Middle Ages- Christianity or Islam?

600 words - 2 pages old ways.Another quality the Muslims had was the urge to help others. Their faith says that they were to help and care for others less fortunate then themselves, so they built hospitals to treat them, this let them build up on their knowledge of different illnesses and treatments.Few Christians knew how to read or write in the Middle Ages, so they didn't consider education as an important quality. They learnt a lot about anatomy from war. They

Drug testing in schools. The issue of drug testing in public schools. The postion is for drug testing and gives reasons and quotas from laws.

1354 words - 5 pages and drug use. Statistics indicate that drug use among teenagers in the United States is higher than any other society. Drunk driving is the primary cause of death among teenagers.Random drug testing policies in the public schools have brought about numerous lawsuits by students and their parents. The schools say that random drug testing is a program used for drug prevention and deterrence. At this time, little research has been done to determine

The Use of Polygraph Testing in Law Enforcement for Investigative and Hiring Tools

1643 words - 7 pages known to being used in criminal investigations to detect the deception and deceit in suspects, the polygraph is also being use in departments for its use in the hiring process for background information. The FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation) as well as some local police departments is examples of the criminal justice departments that use the polygraph testing for their hiring process. The employee is subject to a polygraph test when the employer

Testing and Evaluating the Contents of Two Known Solutions for Proteins and Lipids

2640 words - 11 pages Testing and Evaluating the Contents of Two Known Solutions for Proteins and Lipids Introduction For this experiment two solutions will be provided. In one test tube it contains milk and in the other test tube it contains sunflower oil. The test for proteins and lipids will be done for each solution and then a conclusion can be deduced from these results. To test for the proteins place 2cm³ of the test solution into

When is drug testing not nearly enough? This essay is about the pre-employment tests that are being used in order for an applicant to get a job. It focuses on drug testing and psychological testing.

1822 words - 7 pages When is Drug Testing Not Nearly Enough?It seems that it is getting harder and harder to get a job. From going through many interviews, to having to take drug testing and psychological tests, companies are making it extremely difficult for the "wrong" kind of people to gain access to their work environment. But are all these pre-employment tests really necessary?I found numerous articles, web-sites, etc. that went along with this topic. It seems

What are the problems surrounding the evidence for and against the Pirenne thesis? Europe From Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages

2757 words - 11 pages before the tenth century A.D., consequently, in their minds rendering Pirenne's Thesis totally superfluous. This essay now examines these diverse viewpoints.It is of utmost interest, and a vital starting point is to comprehend why Pirenne abandoned the interpretation of his forbears who argued that Germanic forces were culpable for the demise of the medieval ages. His central argument was that, despite the fact that an assortment of barbaric clans of

Experiment write up, including method and discussion on testing food substances for the presence of lipids (fats)

2369 words - 9 pages Testing Food Substances for the Presence of LipidsAim:To establish which food substances contain lipids.Hypothesis:1. All diary products will contain lipids.2. All animal tissue will contain lipids.3. All plant storage organ products, i.e. seeds, will contain lipids.Introduction:Lipids are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. Ethanol is an example of an organic polar solvent which will dissolve lipids to a limited extent. However

Similar Essays

Nonparametric Hypothesis Testing Essay

1561 words - 6 pages clerical, management or sales positions in the manufacturing industry would make a higher or lower salary if they were to hold the same positions in other industries. For the purposes of testing Team B used data provided by Wages and Wage Earners Data Set (2008). The ANOVA test results failed to reject the following null hypothesis: Ho = Employees in the manufacturing field, who hold clerical, management, or sales positions, have a mean salary that is

Nonparametric Hypothesis Testing Paper Week 4

1235 words - 5 pages Nonparametric Hypothesis Testing Paper Does going to school pay off and is the payoff larger based on an individual抯 occupation? Most people would answer yes to this question. People decide to go to college for a multitude of reasons. One of the most important is the expectation of economic gain. This research paper will illustrate the economic value of an education and will go a step further to show that a chosen occupation can also add

Death Is The Wages For Sin

3034 words - 13 pages , Bonnie also had a wild streak as a child. Bonnie was constantly on the search for excitement, and with her cousin Bess as her cohort, nothing could stand in her way. When they were younger, Bonnie and Bess would get countless spankings for playing in the Barn’s rafters, starting fires, and getting into their grandfather’s wine (Fortune 45, 46, 48). Although, when Bonnie’s uncle taught her to swear, it was claimed that she was too cute to paddle

Hypothesis Testing Of The Observation Ablities/Differences Of Males/Females

993 words - 4 pages following study several groups were tested on theirobservational abilities. In order to develop such a test, it was necessaryto devise a structured approach for gathering and interpreting theinformation. Therefore, the scope of the test was formulated based onhypothesis testing. The following hypothesis was established as thecriterion for the test:Null hypothesis (Ho) :Males and females do not have different observational abilitiesAlternative