In this paper, I will explore ethical issues to the artificial intelligence. In Wallach and Allen coauthored “Moral machines: teaching robots right from wrong”, they explore on many theories and practical issues for AMAs. I will use this book to interpret Wallach and Allen’s ideas of ethical design.
I. Wallach and Allen describe the necessity for good construction on AMAs
(A) The world needs good build AMAs
In the introductory part of Wallach and Allen’s book, they present three essential issues, one of them is “does the world need AMAs?”(p.9) Wallach and Allen give a positive answer, they believe that with the rapid development in new technology and mechanization, intelligent autonomous robot begin coming into our lives, AMAs may bring a variety of ethical and social issues, in support of artificial intelligence, to human society. This makes the AMAs show a certain degree of harm to society. However, the development of AMAs cannot be stopped because some futurists and social critics are criticizing the issues in the future technology of AMAs may arise. Facing the importance of risk assessment in the progress of building AMAs, they seek “precautionary principle” from ethics to regulate the AMAs, and point out that there should be a standard to use or not use those ethical principles. (p.52) conditionally assessing risk using appropriate methods, and use this basis to reassess the danger of developing AMAs is greater than risk or not. Wallach and Allen maintain an optimistic attitude about the future, they believe in the near future, “It will be possible to engineer systems that are more sensitive to the laws and moral considerations that inform ethical decisions than anything presently available.”(p.214) in view of this, Wallach and Allen insist a conclusion: the world not only need AMAs, the world also need good build AMAs, human cannot be afraid of developing computer technology because some science fiction writers wrote about the scene that robots are flooding the world. All in all, we should build AMAs and only good build AMAs.
(B) Need “Turing test” on ethics
“Turing test” is proposed by Alan Turing in “Computing Machinery and Intelligence”. Turing envisioned an “imitation game” to determine and verify the issue “can machines think”. He believed the idea of “machines can be instead of people in the game” is achievable, and he expected “in about fifty years' time it will be possible, to programme computers, with a storage capacity of about 109, to make them play the imitation game so well that an average interrogator will not have more than 70 per cent chance of making the right identification after five minutes of questioning.” (Turing p.442) With the rapid development of artificial intelligence, more advanced computer systems have become indistinguishable from humans. Wallach and Allen believe bring “Turing test” to ethical field, can help them carry out a new investigation about “Turing test” in a new dimension. They cite the example of...