2.0 Literature Review
People are consume a lot of product and generate waste product much faster than the natural degradation process and replecement of this materials. So far, Malaysians spend much more money on waste management. Local authorities spend up to 60 per cent of their annual budget to manage solid waste generated in the country, which costs Malaysia between RM110 and RM130 to collect and dispose one tonne of garbage. That sums up to RM1.98 million to RM2.34 million per day or RM854 million per year at the current generation of 18,000 tonnes of solid wastes per day (Ali, Eeda et al., 2012).
2.1 What is waste and domestic waste
Waste is unwanted material left over from a production process, or output which has no marketable value. For the domestic waste, solid waste that comprising of garbage and rubbish like bottles, cans, clothes, shoes,disposables, compost, papers, diposables and food scraps that comes from private homes or apartments. Domestic waste also may contain hazardous waste. Domestc waste is also called household waste and residential waste.
2.2 Characteristic of wastes
Solid waste has been categorized into several types according to the classification which has been used by almost all countries in the world. The main division is into organic, inorganic and hazardous waste.
Table 1 : Characteristics of domestic wastes ( source: Ali, Eeda et al., 2012 )
Types of Waste Waste Components
a) Organic wastes
Rubber and leather
b) Inorganic wastes
c) Special wastes
d) Hazardous wastes
Vegetables and fruit discards and peeling, egg shells,
spoiled food and bread, meat and fish bones
Newspapers, books, comics, magazines, office papers, wrapping paper, paper bags, paper towels, writing paper, cigarette packages, paper plates and cups
Trash bags, plastic plates and cups, toys, wraps, sacks,
other plastic packaging, bottle etc.
Rubber tyres, leather shoes, handbags, carpets
Clothes, rags, carpets, hats, other fabrics
Lumber, plywood boxes, furniture and cabinets, toys
Grass clippings, flowers, plants, leaves, tree and brush trimmings
Sanitary napkins, disposable diapers
Bottles, jars, broken glass, beer and soft drinks, food
Soft drink cans, food and other aluminium cans.
Furniture, refrigerators, stoves (can use any part of it)
Oil, grease, etc.
Wire, auto parts, iron, steel, etc
Rocks, stones, ceramics, bricks, sand, dirt, ashes, cinder.
Batteries, chemicals, pesticides, paints, thinners, spray canisters, tires, Worn-out/broken radios, stereos, and TV
2.3 Methods of Waste Management
1. Disposal Method
Historically most household waste has been dumped, buried or burned....